icer215's version from 2016-08-24 21:29


Question Answer
Self-concept/self-identity/social identity An idea of self-awareness. How people evaluates and thinks about themselves
There are two aspects of selfThe existential self and The categorical self
The existential selfThe most basic part and You are aware that you are different from others
The categorical selfYou become aware that yourself can be categorized in the world. Different categories include age, gender, skills, size, and so on
Self-identityHow you identify yourself: “I am a girl/boy” & “I am 6 years old”.
Social identityHow the society identifies you: “I need to be masculine because I am a boy”.
Social categories includenationalities, gender roles, religious views, family structure, and so on
Self-esteemThe level of acceptance and value that a person has of themselves. A degree of evaluation can range from positive to negative
High self-esteemPeople with high self-esteem have a positive value of themselves. They feel confident, optimistic, and accept themselves as who they are without worrying about what others think about them
Low self-esteemPeople with low self-esteem have a negative value of themselves. They have low self-confidence. They are also very self-conscious and pessimistic


Question Answer
Self-efficacyOne’s belief in their ability to achieve goals in life. A degree of competence that one feels for themselves, which varies depending on the tasks and situations
High self-efficacyPeople with high self-efficacy have accurate self-evaluation, great sense of accomplishment, and have no fear to take the risks
Low self-efficacyPeople with low self-efficacy have fear of uncertainty, failure, and risks
Locus of controlin self-concept and self-identity
Two types of locus of controlInternal locus of control and External locus of control
Internal locus of controlPeople with internal locus of control believe that they have the control over what happens around them
People are more likely toTake responsibility for their actions, Be less influenced what others think, Work hard, More independent, Willing to face challenges
External locus of controlPeople with external locus of control believe that they have no control over what happens around them
People are more likely toBlame external sources, Credit any successes as luck, Feel hopeless in difficult situations


Question Answer
Types of IdentitiesRace/ethnicity, Gender, Age, Sexual orientation, Class
Race/ethnicityRace refers to distinction drawn from physical appearance. Including skin and eye color, and so on.
Ethnicity is referring to distinctions based on national origin, religion, language, food and other cultural indicators
GenderRefers to one’s psychological sense of being a male or female
AgeRepresents a person’s changes over time
Sexual orientationRefers to a pattern of sexual attraction
ClassRefers to a social hierarchical categories. Includes upper, middle, and lower classes
Lev Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development“Distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers”
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral developmentSix stages of determining right and wrong
Six stages of determining right and wrongStage 1: Punishment by adults, Stage 2: Reward by adults, Stage 3: Rules set by close people, Stage 4: Rules set by society, Stage 5: Personality importance and society, Stage 6: Rules based on abstract ethical principles


Question Answer
Influence of individualsImitation and Role-taking
ImitationReproducing observed behaviors. Involves mirror neurons (refer to previous lessons for more detailed information). For example, a baby girl observes her mom wearing high heels before going out to work. The next time the girl sees her mom’s high heels on the floor, she puts on the high heels.
Role-takingSocial perception that involves understanding of other’s roles and the situation. Learn to aware other people’s identity and perspective that differs from their own
Influence of groupReference group
Reference groupA group that is socially compared to other another group. Allow determination and evaluation of a given group
CultureThe way a group of people live, value, and behave in a particular group
One’s identity is influencedby different nationality, language, sexuality, ethnicity, social class, generation, and even religion. It is specific and unique for each individual
Some culturesare accepted or not accepted by different groups in the society/country
SocializationSocial experience that lasts a life time, Different skills, behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and so many more constantly forms and changes as one lives in the society, A person observes, determines, and evaluates other people’s identity and values., Comparing oneself to others help forming and shaping identity