Self-Identity and Group Identity

icer215's version from 2016-08-03 01:49


Question Answer
Self-concept or self-identityis the sum of an individual’s understanding of him or herself, including physical, psychological, and social attributes.
Personal identityincludes personal attributes (such as age, disability status, ethnicity/race) while social identity consists of social definitions (religion, gender, occupation).
Self-efficacyis a belief in one’s own competence and effectiveness, while self-esteem is an individual’s overall evaluation of worth.
internal locus of controlbelieve they are able to influence outcomes through their own effort; those with an external locus of control believe outcomes are controlled by outside forces.
Symbolic interactionismproposes that the mind and self emerge through the social process of communication and the use of cultural symbols.
Socializationis the process by which people learn the norms, values, attitudes, and beliefs necessary to become proficient members of society.
Normsare spoken or unspoken rules and expectations for the behavior in society. Mores are norms that are highly important for the benefit of society and so are often strictly enforced.
Agents of socializationinclude the following: family, school, peer group, the workplace, religion/government, and mass media/technology.
Cultural assimilationoccurs when an individual forsakes their own culture to completely adopt another culture; amalgamation occurs when majority and minority groups combine to form a new group.
Multiculturalism or pluralismendorses equal standing for all cultural traditions within a society.
subcultureis a segment of society that shares a distinct pattern of traditions and values that differs from that of the larger society.
Kohlbergdescribed six stages of moral development; most adults reach stage 4, but few reach stage 6.
behaviorcan be attributed to internal or external causes, consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus must be considered.
fundamental attribution erroroccurs when people tend to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of a person’s character or personality on observed behavior.
self-serving biasis the tendency to attribute our successes to ourselves and our failures to others or to the external environment.
optimism biasis the belief that bad things happen to other people, but not to us; the just world phenomenon is a tendency to believe that the world is fair and people get what they deserve.
false consensusoccurs when we assume that everyone else agrees with what we do (even though they may not); a projection bias happens when we assume others have the same beliefs we do.
Stereotypesare oversimplified ideas about groups of people, based on characteristics (race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, disability).
Prejudicerefers to the thoughts, attitudes, and feelings someone holds about a group that are not based on actual experience. Discrimination is prejudiced treatment of someone based on their membership in a specific social group.

Section 2

Question Answer
illusory correlationis when a relationship is perceived between variables (typically people, events, or behaviors) even when no such relationship exists.
self-fulfilling prophecyoccurs when stereotypes lead to behaviors that affirm the original stereotypes; stereotype threat refers to a self-fulfilling fear that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
Ethnocentrismis the tendency to judge people from another culture by the standards of one’s own culture, while cultural relativism judges another culture based on its own standards.
groupis a collection of any number of people (as few as two) who regularly interact and identify with each other, sharing similar norms, values, and expectations.
Primary groupsare usually smaller and include those with whom the individual engages with in person, in long-term, emotional ways; secondary groups are larger and more impersonal, and are usually of short duration.
in-groupis a group that an individual belongs to and believes to be an integral part of who they are; an out-group is a group that an individual does not belong to.
social facilitation effectoccurs when people perform simple, well-learned tasks better when other people are present.
Deindividuationoccurs in situations that provide a high degree of arousal and a very low sense of responsibility, when people lose their sense of restraint and their individual identity in exchange for identifying with a group or mob mentality.
bystander effectdescribes the finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanders.
Social loafingis the tendency for people to exert less effort if they are being evaluated as a group than if they are individually accountable.
Group polarizationoccurs when the average view of a member of the group is accentuated or enhanced by group membership.
Groupthinkis a phenomenon that occurs within a group when the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in a consensual perspective without much thought of alternative viewpoints.

Section 3

Question Answer
Devianceis a violation of society’s standards of conduct or expectations.
Behavioris motivated by social influences when there is: compliance, identification, and internalization.
Several factors influence conformityincluding: group size, unanimity, cohesion, status, accountability, and lack of prior commitment.
Statusis a broad term in sociology that refers to all the socially defined positions within a society.
Social rolesare expectations for people of a given social status.
Impression management or self-presentationis the conscious or unconscious process whereby people attempt to manage their own images by influencing the perceptions of others.
The dramaturgical perspective positsthat we imagine ourselves as playing certain roles when interacting with others in society.