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Self Care Mid Term Exam Lecture 4 Review

alchemist04's version from 2018-10-07 23:38

Components of Musculoskeletal Pain

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difference btw tendon and ligamentTendon is an attachment of Bone to muscle (TBM). Ligament is an attachment of bone to bone


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Acute Pain defa pain that last less than 4 weeks
Chronic Pain defnPain lasting at least 3 months
Explain the processes involved with somatic painoccurs when pain impulses are transmitted from peripheral nociceptors to the CNS by nerve fibers


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Onset mm soreness of8 hrs or more
Soreness peak w/n ------- hrs?24 - 48 hrs
Pathophysiology components include1. inflammation 2. acidosis 3. muscle spasms and/or 4. micro-lesions


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is also known asmuscle pain
can be as a result of1. systemic infections e.g. influenza. 2. Chronic disorders e.g. fibromyalgia, polymyalgia, rheumatica. 3. medications e.g. some cholesterol-lowering agents such as (a-coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors). 4. Abuse of alcohol which may precipitate acute alcoholic myopathy. 5. Bone and muscle pain may be related to Vitamin D deficiency (a. Osteomalacia)
SignsPossible swelling. Dull, constant ache (sharp pain relatively rare); weakness and fatigue of muscle also common
Solution1. Elimination of cause. 2. Use of stretching. 3. Rest. 4. Heat. 5. Topical analgesics. 6. Systemic analgesics


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What is the difference btw sprain and strain?Stain is an injury to a muscle or a tendon while Sprain is an injury to the ligament
Signs of strain1. Swelling. 2. Bruising
Solution1. RICE. 2. Stretching 3. Protective wraps. 4. Topical/systemic analgesics


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Example iscarpal tunnel syndrome
Contributing factors include1. old age. 2. poor techniques. 3. improper conditioning. 4. exercise of prolonged intensity or duration. 5. poorly designed equipment for specific activities (e.g. inadequately cushioned athletic shoes)
Medication that could cause tendonitis isFluoroquinolone antimicrobial
Signs1. Warmth. 2. Swelling. 3. Erythema
Solution1. Elimination of cause. 2. Use of stretching. 3. Rest. 4. Ice. 5. Topical analgesics. 6. Systemic analgesics


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Most commonly occurred inLigament
Grade ISprain resulting from excessive stretching
Grade IISprain resulting from a partial tear
Grade IIISprain resulting in complete tear of the tissue
Signs1. Swelling. 2. Bruising
Solutions1. RICE (Rest, Ice Compression and Elevation). 2. Stretching. 3. Use of protective wraps. 4. Topical analgesic. 5. Systemic analgesics

Low Back Pain (LBP)

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SolutionsHeath therapy (15 - 20 mins, TID or QID), Topical Analgesic, topical anesthetic (lidocaine for nerve pain), Massage. 2. acupuncture. 3. spinal manipulation


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When is osteoarthritis self-treatable?it is approved for self-treatment after an initial medical diagnosis
Signs1. Noninflammatory joints. 2. narrowing of joint space. 3. Restructuring of bones and cartilage (resulting in joint deformities). 4. possible joint swelling
Symptoms1. Dull joint pain relieve by rest. 2. Joint stiffness <20 – 30 minutes. 3. localized symptoms to joint. 4. crepitus
Solutions1. Continuous exercise (light-moderate activity). 2. Weight loss. 3. Heat. 4. Analgesic medications. 5. Topical pain relievers

Treatment goals

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1st goalDecreasing the severity or subjective intensity of the pain
2nd goalDecreasing the duration of pain, when possible
3rd goalRestoring function of the affected area
4th goalPreventing acute pain from becoming chronic persistent pain


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pain scalepain greater than 6 on pain scale
pain durationpain lasting more than 10 days
continuous painpain that continues for more than 7 days after treatments w/ topical analgesics
Pain intensityChange in character or increase in pain intensity
ageanyone < 2 yo (FDA minimum age)

Nonpharm recommendation

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RICERest, ICE, Compress, Elevate
OthersMassage, Acupunture, Spinal manipulation, Heat


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Methyl SalicylateIncrease blood flow via vasodilation
TurpentineIncrease blood flow
CamphorProduce cooling sensation
MentholProduce cooling sensation
Histamine dihydrochlorideCause vasodilation
Methyl nicotinateCause vasodilation
CapsicumIncite irritation w/o rubefaction (increase blood flow), effects on the depletion of substance P. Pain relief is usually noted within 14 days after therapy has begun, but relief will occasionally be delayed by as much as 4–6 weeks in cases of chronic pain.

Complementary Therapies

Question Answer
for Osteoarthritisglucosamine and chondroitin, efficacy might take more than 6 months. No assurance of efficacy.