ligicefe's version from 2016-06-05 19:05


Question Answer
what were the refugee problems?from 1949-61, 2.7 million east germans fled to the west as their government was unpopular. they preferred the wealth and greater freedom of the west and this was a propaganda disaster for the USSR.
What was Khrushchev's initial reaction to the refugee crisis?He declared west berlin all of his in 1958 to humiliate the US, prevent fleeing to the wet and he raised a 6 month ultimatum for the USA to remove troops from berlin
What was Eisenhower's response to the ultimatum? Meetingshe wanted to discuss berlins future in a meeting because he did not want to lose west berlin. Geneva Summit 1959 - they met but agreed on nothing. Camp David summit 1959 - they met but khrushchev only removed the 6 month ultimatum. Paris Summit 1960 - disaster - before this USSR shot down american spy plane eisenhower did not apologise so khrushchev walked out. Vienna Conference 1961 kennedy made president khrushchev thought he was inexperienced so he raised the ultimatum again kennedy didnt' care and prepares for war committing $3.3 billion for US defence and $207 on nuclear fallout shelters.
When and why was the berlin wall made?it was made it 1961 overnight by east german troops which eventually turned into a wall. it was set up because the ussr could not win a nuclear was with the usa - they had 20x more nuclear misiles and could not force them out yet they still had to solve the refugee crisis. in 1963 kennedy gave a speech about the freedom of west berlin.
What was the impact of the Berlin wall?ti solved the refugee crisis, it prevented a war with the usa. it was a powerful symbol of the divisions in germany and europe.
The developing arms raceUSA was the clear winner of the arms race - more missiles and reached ussr soil. US had regular duck and cover rehearsals in schools.Both sides did not use the missiles as it was too destructive yet continued the race.
Statistics, USA concerns, USSR concernsEach side produced statistics about the missiles. ussr figures were overestimated. The usa feared the tsar bomba - ussr bomb most destructive bomb ever. ussr feared usa missiles closer to ussr than ussr ones were to usa. eg they had nuclear missiles in turkey and italy in 1961in 1956 the usa also developed b52 bombers. in 1957 ussr developed sputnik1 - the first man made satellite in space. but the ussr was not wealthy enough to produce further missiles and khrushchev's claim they were producing missiles like sausages was an empty boast.
What were the causes of the cuban revolution in 1959?the usa owned 90% of electric and phone supply 40% of sugar and all oil of cuba. they wanted to overthrow the pro american government and the new PM castro wanted greater independence from the usa.
What did Castro do during the revolution?he took over all american owned lands in cuba and in return america banned all trade with cuba by 1960.
When was and what happened during the bay of pigs invasion?in 1961 kennedy launched an invasion on cuba with 1400 cuban exile army. this was a disaster as castro already knew of the invasion. he responded with 20000 troops and the us was forced to surrender. castro declared himself a communist and the usa made further plans to overthrow him, the ussr said theyll provide military help as long as cuba agree that they can place missiles bases.castro agreed.
What happened during the thirteen days 1962kennedy is informed of ussr placing missiles in 16 october. on 20 october he imposed a naval blockade to prevent the ussr entering.on 24 october khrushchev says it is aggressive and will ignore it. so oon the 25 they both prepare for a nuclear attack. 27 oct ussr says he'll remove missiles if usa agree to remove missiles in turkey they agree and turkey is kept a secret.
What were the immediate consequences of the cuban missile crisis in 1962?the ussr lost its authority - looked like it betrayed cuba as turkey had been kept a secret. the ussr and usa agree to a hotline - direct communications link between each other. they agree to the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963 - they ban testing weapons in space, air, ground, this controls the use of weapons. Kennedy says a a speech about working with USSR in 1963 - marks start of detente and relaxation of tensions.
What were the long term consequences of the cuban missile crisis in 1962?the ussr wanted to catch up in the arms race, by 1965, both were on equal footing with weapons. MAD -mutually assured destruction avoided war as they knew theyd kill everybaddy. france left nato and made own missiles as they dont want to destroy their own country in fights
How was life in Czechoslovakia in 1960s?communism had few benefits. still run by secret police who stamped out opposition. they had economic struggles and a poor standard of life.repression and economic decline made novitny unpopular so dubcek was made leader of communist party in 1968.
who was dubcekfriends with brezhnev. leader of com party 1968. he aimed for socialism with a human face and more cultural freedom.
Outline the features of the Prague Spring, 1968he wanted to relax censorship, allow opposition groups, allow political opposition, market socialism - introduce capitalist elements into economy = lots of democrac embraced by students workers youth. - others horrified
What was brezhnev's issue with the prague spring?he didnt like it. the reforms suggested weakening of soviet control over czechosolvakia in the long run eastern bloc. tried to take back reforms by persuading dubcek but he didn't take the hint
what's the brezhnev doctrine?soviet media portrayed czechoslovakia as a massive threat to the ussr. the doctrine stated the ussr had the right to invade any country that threatened the security of the soviet union
what happened in the soviet invasion of czechoslovakia, 1968?soviet tanks came in. dubcek ordered non violence. he was arrested and brezhnev tearfully told him he defied communism and was forced to sign the moscow protocol which removed opposition and reintroduced censorship.
what were the international reactions to the soviet invasion?america was busy fighting in vietnam. they publicly conemned but offered no help. western countries did the same but communist parties were outrages and became independant from soviet control. eastern europe condemned and distanced themselves from the ussr yugoslavia and romania allied with china - next big communist power. east germany and poland praised - czech too liberal.

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