ligicefe's version from 2016-06-05 15:42


Question Answer
What was the Cold War?Military alliance, propaganda, arms race, USSR and USA conflict
What was the Grand Alliance?Set up in 1941 to defeat the Nazis. After WW2 it was shaky - just a marriage of convenience with communists and capitalists.
Tehran Conference - date, focus, decisions, problems?1943 conference. Attended by the Big Three. Focus: Discuss plans for reconstruction of Europe. Decisions: USA SOI in West and USSR SOI in East. Problems: USSR wanted Germany to lose territory and pay reparations whereas USA wanted to rebuild Germany.
Yalta Conference - date, focus, decisions, problems?1945 conference. Focus: Establish a democracy in Europe. Marked highpoint in relations. Decisions: Communist government in Poland. UN established. USSR agreed to help defeat Japan. PROBLEMS: Different definitions of democracy. Stalin believed that communists truly represented democratic views. USA and Britain believed different parties competing were best.
Potsdam Conference - date, focus, decisions, problems?1945 conference. Truman delayed the conference to test the first atomic bomb - leverage, 'mastercard' in Potsdam discussions. Focus: Decide how to govern Germany. Decisions: divide Germany into 4 allocate to GB France, US, USSR. Reduce Germany by 1/4. Problems: USSR wanted to take heavy rep from Germany so they agreed to take reparations from the place they governed. USSR had the poor area so the USA agreed to trade industrial resources with raw materials such as coal.
What is the 'War of words'?1946 - clear that Europe had been divided into communism and capitalism - 'Iron Curtain' speech Churchill. Both the USA and USSR spied on each other using secret telegrams. Both treated each other with suspicion = TENSION
Long Telegram, date, features?1946. America's ambassador in Moscow told USA: Stalin gave a speech about the destruction of capitalism. USSR was building its military power. USA should seek to contain communism.
Novikov's Telegram, date, features?1946. USSR ambaassador in USA told USSR. America planned to dominate the world. They no longer wished to cooperate with USSR. USA was preparing for war with the USSR.
Significance of telegrams?By the end of 1946 the Grand Alliance was over. The world was divided into communism in the east and capitalism in the west.
What was the Truman Doctrine?Set up by Truman in 1967. The USA was aware that the USSR could not wage a war - but they had another strategy. As much of Europe was devastated after ww2, poverty rose = attracts communism so USSR has a chance to extend influence. Truman tried to stop this with a Doctrine. States the world had a choice between communism and capitalism, the US could fight whenever it was threatened, it also offered resources and troops to countries threatened by communism. This was an effective strategy to contain communism.
What is the significance of the Truman Doctrine?Shows that the USA instead of the UN had the responsibility to protect the world. It marked the reversal of the USA's traditional isolationism strategy - stay out of international affairs. It marked the start of the Cold War. It also set goals for containment.
What was the Marshall Plan?Set up in 1967. 'Two halves of the same walnut' - Marshall Aid was the other plan. The USA committed $13 billion to rebuild the shattered economies of Europe, in return for free trade. In the Paris Conference of 1948 - 16 countries were keen to take up the offer, The USSR walked out claiming it was the first step in creating a military alliance to wage a war on USSR. Stalin also urged eastern countries to refuse Marshall Aid.
Significance of the Marshall Plan?It would weaken the attraction of communism. Marked first military alliance of TCW.
What are satellite states and why did Stalin set them up?A country officially independent but in reality controlled by another, Stalin set them up because he feared America was buying influence over Europe. So he extended his control using satellite states. Countries include Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia.
How did Stalin keep control of Satellite states?Created an atmosphere of fear and mistrust so it was difficult to oppose soviet rule. Using police and brutality to stamp out opposition, making sure communist party leaders obeyed USSR.
What was Cominform?Set up in 1947 by Stalin. Represented communist parties across Europe. Encouraged communist parties in West to strike against Marshall Aid. EXAMPLE - 2 million workers in France striked against it. Also used to remove opposition violently to ensure loyalty to USSR - example - 5% of Hungary imprisoned by 1953.
What was Comecon?Set up in 1947. USSR alternative to Marshall Aid. Aimed to encourage economicdevelopment in the East and prevent trade with the West. This would minimise the USA's influence in East. Also encouraged economic development but meant East did not have access to West prosperity.
What was the first confrontation of TCW and why did it occur?The first confrontation was the Berlin Blockade in 1948. The parts France, Britain and the US occupied, the Trizonia operated as one and they wanted to start a German constitution and a new currency, the Deutschmark. Stalin didn't want the USA to have further influence or have US troops stationed in Germany as he feared it would be used to wage a war on the USSR. Thus he built the Berlin Blockade in 1948 around West Berlin to cut the West from its capital in Berlin to show that a divided Germany cannot work in practice.
How did the West react to the Berlin Blockade?Truman responded to the Blockade peacefully by sending 1000 tonnes a day of resources and food via Berlin Airlift. Britain responded by sending 170000 tonnes in January of 1949 alone. This was a success for Truman and as failure for the USSR as it showed that Stalin was being highly aggressive. Thus in May 1949 the blockade ended. The trizonia still formed their own constitution - FRG and USSR - GDR.
What was NATO and why was it formed?NATO was set up in 1949. The Berlin Blockade was the first military confrontation of TCW, raising the possibility of war. It was an alliance of Western countries to 'keep the USA in and the USSR out'. The terms; if any country came under attack, all members of NATO must come to their defence. SIGNIFICANCE - went further than Marshall Aid - military alliance against communism.
What was the Warsaw Pact and why was it formed?Set up in 1955, it mirrored NATO as an alliance of Eastern countries.
What was the arms race?A continuing commitment of both sides to have a large army, navy, nuclear weapons and air force from 1945-55. In 1949, both had nuclear bombs. In 1953, both had hydrogen bombs. In 1955 both had planes capable of bombing each other.
What was the significance of the arms race?It prevented a war in Europe - both had deadly weapons that could destroy the world. It meant that the USSR would never invade USA as they feared US retaliation.
What was the state of Hungary in 1949?Still run by secret police who stamped out opposition. Communism imposed an oppressive regime on Hungary. Land was redistributed to different eastern countries. Coal, oil and wheat were shiiped to the USSR while Hungary remained deprived. Rakosi was the dictator from 1949-56.
Who was Matyas Rakosi?Hungary's dictator from 49-56. Called himself Stalin's best pupil and known for 'salami tactics' by getting rid of opposition 'slice by slice' - 5% of Hungary imprisoned and 2000 + deaths.
What was Destalinisation?Stalin died in 1953 and the new leader, Khrushchev gave Secret Speech 1956 promising the end to Stalinism - he was responsible for 20 million deaths.
Budapest uprising, Nagy?Hungarian people were angry with Soviet rule, Khrushchev's speech gave hope but nothing happened. There were bad harvests. food and fuel shortages, so students, workers and the army protested in Budapest in1956. Nagy was made PM.
What were Nagy's reforms?Leave the Warsaw Pact, free elections, as he wanted support from the West. Wanted UN to see them as a neutral country, so they'll provide aid if USSR invades. The US encouraged the East to get rid of their communist oppressors.
How did Khrushchev respond to Nagy's reforms?He feared that if Hungary left the Warsaw Pact, other countries will follow. So he invaded with 200,000 soviet troops and killed 2500. Nagy was hanged in June 1958. The USA offered $20 million medical aid and allowed in 80,000 refugees into the USA. They also boycotted the Olympics in 1956 in protest of USSR actions.
How did they reassert Soviet control?Put Kadar as dictator. He had a 15 point programme - reestablish communist control of Hungary, remain in Warsaw Pact, use troops to remove opposition.