# Science Test Two (1)

version from 2017-03-10 00:13

## Heat

-ABSOLUTE ZERO (-273 Celsius or 0 Kelvin) - particles are still moving around - absolute zero has never been attained.
-VOLUME OF MATTER: heat increases the movement of the particles in a substance and the distance they vibrate, so the volume increases
-HOW HEAT IS TRANSFERRED: 1) in a solid (CONDUCTION), 2) in liquids and gases (CONVECTION), 3) in space and other (RADIATION).
-HE (j), #g (grams), change in temperature (C), SHC (specific heat capacity)

-travels in waves (look at diagram and know wavelength, crest, trough)
-can be reflected or absorbed
-travels 300,000 km/s
-higher frequencies = higher energy
-infrared camera: bright
colors = warm/hot and dark
colors = cool/cold

## Sheets to study:

-WATER BALLOON ACTIVITY: STUDY THE SHEET (which we have not done YET)
-STATION # 10: THE SUN: STUDY THE SHEET
-STATION # 11 (changes of state and characteristics of matter): STUDY THE SHEET -know both tables (not the one in the top right)

## The Particle Theory of Matter

All matter is_____of very small particles called_____and_____that are too small to be seen.composed, atoms, molecules
All of the_____of matter are in _____ ___because they have_____. Particles in_____are held tightly in place but do move. Particles in_____move more freely. Particles in____move much more freely yet. The particles in solids, liquids, and gases are held together by forces of_____between the particles.Particles, constant motion, energy,solid,liquids,gases,attraction
There is _____between the particles. The size of the spaces_____with the ___ ____ ____ (e.g., a solid, liquid, or gas)spaces, varies, type of matter
The addition of ___ ___causes particles to move_____, stretching their _____.heat energy, faster, bonds
Particles are attracted to _____particles. sometimes particles are ___attracted to particles of other substances than they are to their_____.Other, more, own

## SOURCES OF HEAT ENERGY

WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF HEAT ENERGY: MECHANICAL ENERGY1) friction, 2) percussion, 3) compression, 4) distortion
WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF HEAT ENERGY: CHEMICAL ENERGY1) burning, 2) other chemical reactions (new substances are always formed with chemical sources of heat)
WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF HEAT ENERGY: ELECTRICAL ENERGY(Sorry, no answers or examples for electrical. Click I'm right if you are using flashcard mode, I'm sorry)
WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF HEAT ENERGY: NUCLEAR ENERGY1) fission, 2) fusion
What is the Definition of FictionHeat is produced when surfaces are rubbed together. Example: Rubbing hands together
What is the Definition of DistortionHeat is generated when substances especially when metals are bent (Usually repeatedly). Example: Coat hanger
What is the Definition of CompressionWhen substances are compressed, they often become hotter. Example: Balloon! Heat builds up as it gets bigger and will pop if too big.
What is the Definition of PercussionSubstances heat up when being hit or pounded. Example: Hammer and nails, nail gets warm after being pounded with a hammer.
What is the Definition of BurningHeat energy is released when the bonds between atoms (Particles) are broken using high temperatures. New substances are formed whenever chemical energy occurs. (This is NOT a change of state!) Example: A person walking too Close to the fire.
What is the Definition of Other Chemical reactionsHeat energy is released when certain substance are mixed with other substances. Again, like burning, new substances are being formed. Example: Fire under a solution.
What is the Definition of Electrical EnergyAs electricity moves through material that resists the flow of electrons (part of an atom), the particles on the substance become agitated and move more rapidly, generating heat. Example: Electric stove element, electricity.
What is the Definition of Nuclear EnergyEnergy that is released when an atom is spit apart (fission), or when atoms are forced to join together (fusion). Fusion is what occurs in the sun.

## DEFINITIONS

WordDefinition
What is HEATthermal energy that is transferred from one substance to another
What is TEMPERATUREthe measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
What is POTENTIAL ENERGYenergy that is stored
What is KINETIC ENERGYenergy that is "moving"
What is CONDUCTORStransfer heat easily / quickly
What is INSULATORtransfer heat poorly

## CONVERSIONS

K to C- 273
C to K+ 273
C to fx 1.8 + 32
f to C(f - 32) / 1.8
K to and from fconvert to Celsius first

## COMMON TEMPERATURES

ThingTemperatures in Celsius
human37
room temp20
fridge7
oven for a pizza160

## MISC

Galileoinvented the first air thermometer
4 SOURCES OF ELECTRICITY1) Nuclear, 2) Solar, 3) Water, 4) Wind
% of energy gained from food to move us around40%
% of energy gained from food to keep us warm60%

## Change of state content organizer (Part one)

MeltingFrom solid to liquid, heat must be added
FreezingFrom liquid to solid, heat must be Removed
VaporizationFrom Liquid to gas, heat must be added
CondensationFrom gas to liquid, heat must be removed
Sublimation1) From solid to gas, heat must be added 2) From gas to solid, heat must be removed.

## Change of state content organizer (Part two)

Solid (mass)definite
Solid (Shape)definite
Solid (Volume)definite
Solid (compressibility)tiny bit
Solid (Expansion on heating)low
Liquid (mass)definite
Liquid (shape)indefinite
Liquid (Volume)definite
Liquid (Compressibility)a bit
Liquid ( expansion on heating)medium
gas (mass)definite
gas (shape)indefinite
gas (volume)indefinite
gas (compressibility)a lot
gas (Expansion on heating)high

## Other Questions

how fast are the infrared rays travelling from the lamp to the cans?300 000 km/second
The electromagnetic spectrum______this wide range of electromagnetic waves using their_____and frequenciesClassifies, Wavelengths
Which type of radiation has more energy: the ones with lower frequency and longer wave lengths or the ones with higher frequency and shorter wave lengths?Higher frequency and shorter wave lengths.
Can you see infrared rays?No
Which of your five senses tells you that there infrared rays "Coming into contact" with you? _____ How would you know?Touch // heat lamp, feel from sun.
which types of rays are the ones that allow us to get tans or sunburns?Ultraviolet Rays
what part of our bodies are able to adsorb x-rays?The bones
What is the term used for the types of particles that carries electromagnetic radiation?Photons
Which part of the electromagnetic spectrum can we actually see?Visible light
What kind of light do night vision cameras "pick up"?Infrared Light
When looking through night vision cameras, what are you "seeing"?Temperature
When looking through night vision cameras, objects that are warm appear_____and object that are cooler appear_____.Bright, Dark
List two objects that are almost black in color when seen through a night vision camera?Ice cream and Ice cube.
Which two gases fuel the sun?Hydrogen and Helium
Does nuclear fusion or fission occur in the sun?Fusion
what gas is formed when tritium and deuterium collide and nuclear fusion occurs?Helium
What three common household electronics can be affected by solar flares?Televisions, Radios, and cell phones.
What is conductionConduction is how heat is transferred in solids.
What is ConvectionConvection is one way how heat or thermal energy is transferred in Liquids and gases.
What is the difference between conduction and convection?Unlike conduction, convection occurs when warmer particles move from one place caring thermal energy with them.
What is Radiation?Radiation is the transfer of energy in a special form of wave that can travel through many material or empty space.