# Science Test - Fluids

lunifer's version from 2017-11-27 03:33

## Info!

Test will most likely include notes from all sections (in fluids)
http://www.angelfire.com/ego/mr.f/SubjectLinks/gr8text/gr8sci4.pdf here is the textbook chapter for our fluid stuff!!!

## Definitions

any substance that flowsfluid
measure of speed of fluid flowflow rate
anything that has mass and volumematter
amount of force applied to a given areapressure
a mixture of water and solidsslurry
amount of mass in a given volumedensity
how must matter is in a substancemass
how much space a substance takes upvolume
a way of describing matter and its behaviourparticle theory
resistance of a fluid to flowviscosity
a decrease in volumecompression
a push or pullforce
force that slows down motionfriction
tendency of an object to rise or sink buoyancy

## The Particle Theory

All matter is made of _______.particles
The particles of matter are in ______ _______.constant motion
All particles of one ______ are _______.substance, identical
_______ affects the ______ of which particles move.temperature, speed
There are ______ in between particles.spaces
There are _______ of ______ between particles.forces of attraction

## Formulas (Desnity, Mass, Volume)

formula for densitymass ÷ volume
formula for massdensity x volume
formula for volumemass ÷ density
formula for volume of regular shaped solidlength x width x height

## Weight vs Mass

mass unitkilograms
weight unitnewtons
what is masshow much matter is in an object
what is weighthow hard gravity pulls on down an object
mass changes on the moon?no
weight changes on the moon?yes

## Buoyancy

Archimedes principlebuoyant force = weight of displaced liquid
what does the buoyancy force dopushes up on an object in a fluid
buoyancy force < weightobject sinks
buoyancy force > weightobject rises
buoyancy force = weightobject floats (middle)
how do ships floathull is designed to contain a large volume of air, makes the ship's overall density less than water and floats

## Saltwater vs Freshwater

saltwater is ____ densemore
freshwater is ____ denseless
saltwater has ____ buoyancymore
freshwater has ____ buoyancyless
why does a buoy float higher in saltwater than freshwaterit is pushed up more by the saltwater (which has greater density and buoyant force than freshwater)

## Pressure Questions

definition of pressureamount of force applied to a given area
why does your inner ear pop when you go high up?when the outside air pressure changes suddenly, it is different from the air pressure inside your ears, so the air pressure in your ear has to adjust making a pop sound
why can gases be easily compressed?there is a lot of space between the particles of a gas, so there is a lot of room to compress those particles closer
why can't liquids be easily compressed?in liquids, the particles are already very close together so compressing them even closer is difficult
deeper in a fluidpressure increases (weight of water pushing down)
sealed container cooledpressure decreases (the gas cools and contracts)
if a dam had a hole, would it be harder to stop water coming from the higher hole or lower hole?lower/bottom hole
how can you make a ball expand on a cold day?bring it inside to warm, as the air particles would expand and fill up the ball

## Formulas and Units (Pressure)

formula for pressureforce ÷ area
formula for forcepressure x area
formula for areaforce ÷ pressure
unit for pressurepascals
1 pascal =1 newton over area of 1 m2

## Fluid Systems

definition of a fluid systema group of parts (including at least one fluid) that interact with each other and function together as a whole
example of a fluid systemhuman circulatory system

## Pascal's Law (mid-1600s)

Pascal's Law states...when a force is applied to an enclosed fluid, the increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid
example of Pascal's Law?toothpaste (squeeze end of it, toothpaste comes out from the other end)

## Hydraulic Systems

definition of a hydraulic systemsystem that uses a liquid under pressure
liquids can be compressed?no
hydraulic systems can _____ the force exerted by a liquidmultiply
definition of a hoistuses two pistons of different sizes to create pressure
definition of a pistona disk that moves inside a cylinder