Science test 2

wavabino's version from 2016-12-21 01:44

The Particle Theory of Matter

Question Answer
All matter is_____of very small particles called_____and_____that are too small to be seen.composed, atoms, molecules
All of the_____of matter are in _____ ___because they have_____. Particles in_____are held tightly in place but do move. Particles in_____move more freely. Particles in____move much more freely yet. The particles in solids, liquids, and gases are held together by forces of_____between the particles.Particles, constant motion, energy,solid,liquids,gases,attraction
There is _____between the particles. The size of thr spaces_____with the ___ ____ ____ (e.g., a solid, liquid, or gas)spaces, varies, type of matter
The addition of ___ ___causes particles to move_____, stretching their _____.heat energy, faster, bonds
Particles are attracted to _____particles. sometimes particles are ___attracted to particles of other substances than they are to their_____.Other, more, own

Acids, bases and pollution

Question Answer
What are three major air pollutants?sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide
What two substances that dissolve in water droplets to produce acids?sulphur and nitrogen oxides
What pH is human blood?7.5
What is the pH range for "normal" rain?5-6.5
What is the pH range where most adult fish die?3 or 4
What is the pH range for acid rain?1-5
List 4 things in the same pH range as acid rain.vinegar, wine,lemon juice, rain
How many times more acidic is a pH level of 3.0 than a pH level of 5.0?100x more acidic
If an acid and a base were mixed together, what do you think would happen?They would neutralize eachother

Objects made by...

Question Answer
What are some products make from petroleum?balloons, eye glasses, perfume, pens, milk jugs, candles, clothing(polyester, nylon)
What are some everyday things made from oil?chapstick, polyester, makeup, balls, shoes, buttons, tar, tires, helmets

Different substances

Question Answer
Different substances made of different_____.substances, properties
We already know that solubility is one of those properties.Two other differences are_____ and_____ temperaturesmelting, boiling
When a substance melts, it changes from a_____ to a_____.solid,liquid
When a substance boils it changes from a_____ to a_____.liquid, gas

Substances and their melting/boiling points

Question Answer
Oxygen (welding, breathing apparatus)Melting: -218 Boiling: -183
Carbon dioxide (as dry ice)Melting: -78 Boiling: -78
Ammonia (fertilizer, explosives)Melting: -78 Boiling: -33
Mercury (barometers, switches)Melting: -39 Boiling: 357
Ethyl alcohol (solvent)Melting: -114 Boiling: 78
Water (ice cubes, drinks)Melting:0 Boiling: 100
Paraffin wax (candles, sealing jars of jam and jelly)Melting: 71 Boiling: 360
Aluminum (auto and aircraft parts, window and door frames)Melting: 660 Boiling: 2467
Iron (cast iron, wrought iron, steel)Melting: 1535 Boiling: 2750
Tungsten (light bulbs, cutting tools) Melting: 3410 Boiling: 5660

Discovery of petroleum (FIB)

Question Answer
Petroleum is an oily_____mixture found beneath the Earth's crustliquid
As far back as thousands of years ago, desert dwellers in the_____tried to burn the black liquid.Middle East
But the flame was_____ and not very_____.smoky, bright
Instead, they preferred to use animal_____ or vegetable_____ for their lamp fuel.fat,oils
Even 150 years there was little interest in petroleum. The Europeans who settled in_____ used other fuels.North America
They used fuels such as_____ to run steam engines,_____ to heat homes, and_____ for light.Coal, wood, whale oil
Then, in 1835, a researcher named_____ succeeded in separating the tar mixture(a solid form of petroleum) to produce w new liquid fuel that was ideal for_____.Abraham Gesner, lighting
It was easy to pour and burned with a clear and bright flame that was nearly smoke-free. He named it_____.Kerosene
Suddenly, petroleum was sought after as a fuel for lighting, and active_____ began in North America.Exploration
Petroleum was discovered in_____Sarnia, Ontario
As_____ became more common, the demand for fuel made from, increased
The discovery of oil in_____ served to satisfy this demand in Canada.Alberta
More recently, large reserves of petroleum have been discovered off the coast of_____.Newfoundland

Processing petroleum (FIB)

Question Answer
_____ are the factories that process petroleum.oil refineries
The process of separating petroleum into its various parts is called_____.refining
In 1857, the refineries in Ontario made only two petroleum products: _____ and_____.buggy wheel grease, kerosene lamp fuel
_____ oil, or petroleum straight from the ground is a mixture of_____ particles that is not very useful in its natural state.crude, different sized
Before it can be used, it must be processed into special fuels such as kerosene, gasoline and_____.Diesel fuel
The process that yields all of these different petroleum products is called_____.fractional distillation
The fractional distillation of petroleum uses a_____ structure to separate the mixture into several products, or "fraction" by distillation.two tower
In the shorter tower, the petroleum is_____ until every part in the mixture_____.heated, vaporizes
The the hot vapours are pumped into the bottom of the taller tower. Here, the vapours of of the different substances cool and_____ at different temperatures as they rise up the tower.condense
Each fraction Is drawn off by_____ at its own level and sent to a different part of the refinery for further processing.collecting pipes
This processing converts the fractions into entirely new products called_____.petrochemicals
To date, scientists have developed over_____ different petrochemicals.500,000

How fractional distillation works

Question Answer
An important thing to remember is that_____ is made up of a lot of_____ things(dead dinosaurs,dead plants etc.).crude oil, different
After crude oil is pumped out of the_____, it is transported to an_____.ground, oil refinery
It is then pumped into a_____ and_____ to a high enough temperature that all the oil boils and is turned into a_____ mixture.tower, heated, gas
The gas mixture is then pumped into a_____.second tower
Here the gas mixture_____ rises, cools, and_____.slowly, condenses
However, because the gas is made up of_____ particles, not all the particles_____ and_____ at the same time.different, cool, condense
Some parts of the gas mixture will cool and condense close to the_____ of the_____ tower, where it is still very hot.bottom,second
This_____ is good for making_____ and asphalt.liquid,tar
A little higher up the tower where it is_____, other parts of the_____ mixture cool and condense, which can be used for making certain types of_____.cooler, gas, waxes
A little higher up the tower where it is even cooler, other parts of the gas mixture cool and condense, which can be used for making_____.gasoline
This process continues until_____ the gas has been_____ into a_____.all, condensed, liquid
Each little_____ of the original crude oil is used to produce a_____.(plastic, diesel fuel, grease, etc.)fraction,different material

A fractioning column

Question Answer
Refinery gas20°
Lubricating oilin between 270° and 340°
Fuel oilin between 270° and 340°

Methods of separation

Question Answer
Picking out with fingers or tongsused to remove very large pieces of material from a mixture
Magnetismused to separate any magnetic material
Flotationused to separate material that is less dense than water
Settlingused to separate material that is more dense than water
Siftingused to separate course material from fine material ( when there are too many to use fingers or tongs )
Filtrationused to separate dissolved particles from undissolved particles
Evaporationused to recover the solute in a solution by evaporating away the liquid
Distillationused to separate the solvent from a solute

What crushed the pop can?

Question Answer
What note do you think could help us solve this question? How about our favourite and most important note of the year:_____!!!The particle theory of matter
First, let's look at solids, remember that the particles in a solid are held_____ in place but do_____.tightly, move
In_____ the particles move even more freely.liquids
In_____, the particles move even more_____.gases, freely
Because the particles in a gas move so freely, they take up_____ space than particles in a liquid.more
100,000 particles of water vapour ( water that is existing as a gas ) take up way_____ space than 100,000 particles of_____ ( liquid).more, water
Remember that in both cases we are talking about the same_____- the H2O molecule/ particle.substance
When we boiled the water in our pop cans, the water_____ and filled the inside of our cans with_____.evaporated, steam
When we quickly turned our cans upside down and placed them in cold water, most of the_____ immediately_____ and turned back into_____.water vapour, condensed, water
Since the water vapour took up a lot_____ space than the water in our cans, a_____ was created inside the cans.more, vacuum
This created a situation where the air_____ of our cans REALLY wanted to get_____ our cans.outside, inside
Since the opening of our can was_____ the surface of the water,_____ couldn't get in using the opening.submerged/ under, air
The air pressure_____ of the can was strong enough to_____ the can as it tried to get_____.outside,crush, in
Besides seeing our cans crushed after we immersed them in water, how else could we know that's vacuum was created inside of our cans?When we pulled the can out of the water way more way came out of the can than what we put in.

Southwestern Ontario limestone

Question Answer
When_____ fills lakes in Southwestern Ontario, the underlying_____ is limestone which is very_____.acid rain, rock, soft
Minerals like_____(which are basic alkaline) in the limestone dissolves into the lake water and_____ the_____.calcium,neutralize, acidity
The lakes here a pH which is_____ alkaline.slightly

Northern Ontario: Canadian shield

Question Answer
When_____ fills lakes in Northern Ontario, the underlying_____ is the CDN shield, which is different from_____.acid rain, rock, limestone
There are a lot fewer_____ substances in the Canadian shield to disslove the_____.alkaline, water
The water in the_____ stays more_____.lakes, acidic

Cabbage juice experiment

Question Answer
What did we use as a base?Cabbage juice
How many sections did we pour the cabbage juice into?6
Why would some of the sections turn pink?The acidic ones turned pink.
Why would some sections turn green, blue, yellow, or clear?Bases turned green, blue, yellow, and clear