Science Test #1

kewinaxi's version from 2016-03-08 04:17


Question Answer
Beginning with the Archean list the 6 major eras of the history of the earth. Indicate also the approximate dates of the beginning of each eraHadean (4.5 bya), Archaen (4.0 bya), Proterozoic (2.5 bya), Paleozoic (550 mya), Mesozoic (245 mya), Cenozoic (65 mya)
Why was the earth initially a molten mass?Because it had a very thin outer solid surface due to there being no atmosphere or hydrosphere.
Why did the earth form concentric layers of distinctly different materials as it cooled?It went through the process of element stratification, where the denser elements migrated toward the center and the lighter stayed on the outside.
What are the 3 primary regions of the earth’s interior? What are the physical characteristics of these 3 regions (temperature, density, mineral composition, etc.)?Crust, mantle, core. The crust is divided into oceanic and continental. Oceanic crust is denser, and relatively young. It mainly consists of mafic rocks that are rich in magnesium and iron. The continental crust is older, and has felsic rocks such as granite and gneiss. The Mantle is rich is magnesium and iron, and is divided into the lithosphere and the asthenosphere. The core is rich in iron and nickel, and can get up to 7000 degrees in the inner, solid core.
How does oceanic crust differ from continental crust?Oceanic crust is denser, and much younger. It also has a vastly different composition.
Describe the events leading to the formation of the moonA Mars-sized object impacts Earth about 4.8 bya, and the impact stripped away much of earth's outer layers. Earth's gravitational field then drew that material together to form the moon.
Distinguish between ionic and covalent bonds.Ionic bond is the transfer of electrons that forms a relatively weak bond that is soluble in water (this can form ions). These are also formed at surface temperature and pressure. Covalent bond is the sharing of electrons that makes a much stronger bond, and are formed at high pressure and temperature.
With respect to atomic bonding, why does halite dissolve in water while quartz is insoluble?Halite has ionic bonds, while quarts has very strong covalent bonds.
What is a mineral?A naturally occurring inorganic solid substance that exhibits unique, distinctive structural and physical properties.
What is a rock?A combination of 2 or more mineral types that do not posses distinctive physical and structural properties.
Minerals of the same elemental composition may differ considerably in terms of physical properties. Explain how this is so.It depends on the temperature and pressure that is applied to the elements. This forms different types of bonds and lattices, making different minerals.
In general, what classes of minerals do not form at the surface of the earth?Silicates
What mineral classes do form at surface temperatures and pressure?Non-silicates
What is the role of chloroplasts?to conduct photosynthesis
What is ATP??The "Universal energy currency of living things"
What are the three general categories of rocks?Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic
How are the 3 categories of rocks differentiated with respect to origin/formation?Igneous rocks form from the melting of other rocks or minerals and then hardening. Sedimentary rocks form through weathering and erosion of other rocks, causing the accumulation and bonding of rock fragments and smaller particles. Metamorphic rocks form by the alteration of rocks by heat and pressure without melting.
What is the function of Mitochondria?Turing on the powerhouse, the powerhouse of the cell
What are the defining characteristics of life?Organized and complex internal structure, ability to concentrate and transform energy, reproduction, growth & differentiation, response to stimuli, homeostasis, and ability to evolve.
What are the building-block molecules of carbohydrate, protein and nucleic acid polymers?Amino acids.
List the four general categories of life molecules and provide for each an example of how they are used in living things.Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Nucleic Acid.
What is the basic design of the plasma membrane of cells? Think of phospholipids.They posses hydrophobic and hydrophobic regions, which means it both attracts and repels water.
With respect to how they are built, what is the basis for the diverse array of protein functions?It is a very large, complex polymer that requires large amounts of nitrogen.

Recent badges