Science Final Study Guide

wafflequeen's version from 2015-05-22 18:24


This page is a study guide for the science final covering basic cells, genetics, chemistry, and physics.


Question Answer
ProkaryoteSingle-celled organism with no membrane surrounding the nucleus
EukaryoteMulti-celled organism with membrane surrounding the nucleus
Where is DNA held in a prokaryotic cell?cytoplasm
Where is DNA held in a eukaryotic cell?chromosomes
What happens when a prokaryote divides?DNA & organelles don't split evenly
What happens when a eukaryote divides?DNA & organelles split evenly
What is the function of the smooth ER?carries messages from nucleus
What is the function of the ribosome?create proteins
What is the function of the rough ER?place where proteins sit
What is the function of the mitochondria?converts energy to different forms
What is the function of the golgi body?storage of proteins
What is the difference between plant and animal cells?Plant cell has cell wall, chloroplast, and single large vacuole


Question Answer
Geneticsscience of how traits are inherited from parents
What does mitosis yield?2 identical daughter cells with 23 pairs (46 single) of chromosomes
What does meiosis yield?4 unique daughter cells with 23 single chromosomes
What are the stages of mitosis?Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens in interphase?Resting, growing, and duplication of DNA and chromosomes
What happens in prophase?Nuclear membrane dissolves, chromosomes pair up, spindles form between centrioles
What happens in metaphase?Chromosomes attached by centromeres line up on spindle fibers
What happens in anaphase?Spindle fibers shorten and chromosomes pull apart
What happens in telophase?Nuclear membrane forms, chromosomes untwist, and spindle fibers dissolve
What happens in cytokinesis?splitting of cytoplasm
What is crossing over?recombination of DNA by one sister chromatid leg crossing over other's leg
What are the stages of meiosis?Meiosis I (Prophase I-Telophase I), Meiosis II (Prophase II-Telopohase II)
What happens in meiosis I?same as mitosis
What happens in prophase II?spindle fibers reappear between centrioles, but chromosomes do NOT duplicate
What happens in metaphase II?Chromosomes line up and cross over
What happens in anaphase II?Chromosomes separate & move to opposite ends
What happens in telophase II?Nuclear membrane forms, chromosomes untwist, and spindle fibers dissolve
What is a haploid cell?a gamete cell with only 23 chromosomes
What is a diploid cell?a somatic cell with 23 pairs of chromosomes
Gregor Mendelfather of genetics, Austrian monk, studied garden peas
Hereditypassing of traits from parent to offspring
Characteristicsbroad category for trait (e.g. hair color, eye color)
Traitversions of characteristics (e.g. brown eyes, blue eyes)
Chromosomescontain DNA, thicken and duplicate during division
DNAchemical code copied & passed to new cells
Discoverer of DNADr. Rosalind Franklin
Watson and Crickmade DNA model
GenesBits of inherited info made of DNA that controls the traits that show up in organism
Allelesdifferent forms a gene may have for a trait
Hybridoffspring may look the same of different than the parents
Purebredparents always give offspring the same trait
Incomplete Dominancecombination of 2 dominant traits (red flower+white flower=pink flower)
Codominancecoexisting of 2 dominant traits (red flower+white flower=red and white flower)


Question Answer
solid to liquidmelting
liquid to gasevaporation
gas to liquidcondensation
liquid to solidfreezing
solid to gassublimation
gas to soliddeposition
gain heatsolid to liquid to gas
lose heatgas to liquid to solid
Combined Gas LawP1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Electron structures2 p6 d10 f14
Signs of a chemical reaction1) change in: temp, color, odor 2) production precipitate, gas
Temperatureavg kinetic energy o/all particles in obj
Degreeunit o/measure o/temp
Fahrenheit32, 212
Celsius0, 100
Kelvin273.15, 373.15
Heatflow o/energy from obj at warmer temp to obj at cooler temp
Specific heatmeasure o/how much energy it takes to raise 1g o/H2O by 1ÂșC
caloriemeasure o/unit o/energy
Joulestandard unit o/energy
1 calorie = (?) joules4.18


Question Answer
Which is stronger: air pressure or water pressure?water pressure
What happens to pressure as you descend in water?increases
What happens to pressure as you ascend in altitude?increase
Input forceforce applied to the machine
Output forceforce the machine applies
Mechanical advantageMA = output (newtons) / input (newtons)
Mechanical efficiencyME = output (joules) / input (joules)
Gravitational potential energyGPE=mgh
1st class leverOFI
2nd class leverFOI
3rd class leverFIO
Potential energyPE=mgh or wh
Kinetic energyKE = 1/2 mv^2

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