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Science bio test

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charlotteamannt's version from 2017-04-16 19:27

Section 1

Question Answer
StageThe flat platform where the slide with the object is placed
Diopter adjustmentUsed on microscope with two ocular lenses in case one eye has a different vision than the other
Stage clipsTo hold the slide with the object on it
Objective lens The lens closest to the object, a standard microscope has 3-5 objective lenses ranging in magnification from 4x to 100x
LampThe light source of the microscope
CondenserIt gathers the light from the lamp onto the object being observed.
Revolving nosepieceIt holds the objective lens, it is rotated to use the different lenses
Ocular lens (eyepiece) The lens the viewer looks into to see the object being observed
Corse adjustment knobMoves the stage up or down to adjust the focus
Fine adjustment knobTo adjust the focus, more precise than the Corse adjustment knob
Iris diaphragmIt is rotated to adjust the amount of light entering
ApertureThe whole in the middle of the stage that allows the light from the lamp to reach the object
ArmHolds microscope together
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Section 2

Question Answer
MouthChews food and breaks it down into smaller pieces. Food is then mixed with saliva to start the process of digestion.
Liverhe body’s 2nd largest organ. It weighs around 3 pounds. The main function is to process the nutrients absorbed from the small intestine. It takes materials absorbed by the intestine and produces chemicals that the body needs to function. Also detoxifies potentially harmful chemicals. The liver also produces bile which help in the small intestine and helps in digesting fat
Esophagus Located in throat near trachea. It receives food from your mouth when you swallow. With a series of muscular contractions called peristalsis, the esophagus delivers food to the stomach.
StomachThe main food storage tank of the body. Without the stomach we would have to eat constantly. The stomach also contains a mixture of acids, mucus and digestive enzymes that help digest and sanitize the food when it is stored.
Gastric canalFormed by the longitudinal ridges found in the interior of the smaller curve of the stomach. Another name is canal of the stomach.
Gastric foldsFound in the interior of the stomach. It can be an indicator of diseases as it will become enlarged with certain diseases.
GallbladderStores and concentrates bile. Then releases it into the duodenum to help absorb and digest fats. Bile may crystalize and form Gallstones which can be painful and life threatening.
PancreasIt passes digestive enzymes into the duodenum. These enzymes break down protein, fats and carbohydrates. The pancreas also produces insulin and passes it into your bloodstream. Insulin is the main hormone for metabolizing sugar.
Omentum Double fold of fatty membrane that hangs down in front of the intestines, Contains blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels and lymph nodes. Acts as storage for fat and may also limit the spread of infection in the abdominal cavity.
Small intestineAbsorbs 90% of nutrients from the food we eat. It is longer than the large intestine as it usually measures around 10 feet in length. It is called small intestine as it has a smaller diameter.
Duodenum: First and shortest segment of small intestine. Receives partially digested food (chyme). Plays vital role in chemical digestion of chyme.
JejunumMost of the nutrients found in food absorbed here.
Large intestine (colon)6 foot long muscular tube connecting the small intestine to the rectum. Responsible for processing waste so letting out the waste is easy.
CecumThe first part of the Colon. It provides space for mixing of bacteria with partially digested food from the small intestine to form feces.
AppendixSmall tube attached to the cecum. The exact function is not sure. It used to help humans digest tree bark. A theory is that it acts as a reserve for good bacteria and when the immune system beats off the disease the bacteria emerge and re-colonize the gut.
Ascending colon: In the ascending colon the bacteria digest the transitory fecal matter in order to release vitamins.
Transverse colonThe longest region of the colon. A lot of the absorption and feces formation happens in this area. Named after the fact that it crosses the abdominal cavity from the right side to the left.
Descending colonFeces are stored there until they are ready to be eliminated from the body. The wall of the descending colon absorb water and remaining nutrients and vitamins from the feces and bring these substances into our bloodstream.
Sigmoid colonThe last segment of the colon. Is in an S shape. Transports feces from descending colon to rectum. Has a similar function as the descending colon.
RectumChamber that connects colon to the anus. It receives stool from colon and lets the owner (the person) know that the stool or gas needs to be released. When the stool arrives in the rectum a message is sent to the brain and the brain decides if it is ready to be released. If it is ready, the sphincters relax and the rectum contracts. If it is not ready, the sphincters contracts and the rectum accommodates so that the sensation temporarily goes away.
Anus2 inch long canal consisting of the pelvic floor muscles and the 2 anal sphincters an internal and an external. The anus controls the expulsion of waste and indigestible substances.
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