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Schools of Philosophical Thought and Relevant Philosophers

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gscrafton111's version from 2017-05-31 00:49

Section 1

Question Answer
AbsurdismAbsurdism is a 19th century philosophical school of thought stating that the efforts of humanity to find inherent meaning will ultimately fail - Soren Kierkegaard / Albert Camus /
Academic SkepticismDating from 266 BC until 90 BC this school held that knowledge of things is impossible, ideas or notions are never true; nevertheless there are degrees of probability, and hence degrees of belief, which allow one to act - Arcesilaus / Carneades / Philo of Larissa /
AgnosticismCoined by Thomas Huxley, Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable - Sanjaya Belatthaputta / Protagoras
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Section 2

Question Answer
AugustinismFormed around the writings of Augustine of Hippo (354 - 430), who contributed to the development of the doctrine of original sin and just war theory - influenced Existentialists and Positivists such as Russell
Alexandrian SchoolGave birth to Neopythagoreanism and Neoplatinism, the former reached its height under Plotinus and ended with the closing of the Athenian school in 529, the latter had a considerable effect on certain Christian thinkers such as Clement of Alexandria and Origen
Analytic PhilosophyBecoming dominant in the 20th Century analytic philosophers championed argumentative clarity, precision, formal logic, conceptual analysis and even maths and the natural sciences - Bertrand Russell / Gottlob Frege (Logical Positivists)
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Section 3

Question Answer
AntipositivismAntipositivism is the belief within social sciences that the social realm is not subject to the same methods of investigation as the natural world. The social realm requires a different epistemology in which the scientific method is discarded - Associated with Frankfurt School / Giambattista Vico / Max Weber / Georg Simmel
AntireductionismOne form of antireductionism (epistemological) holds that we simply are not capable of understanding systems at the level of their most basic constituents, and so the program of reductionism must fail. The other kind of antireductionism (ontological) holds that such a complete explanation in terms of basic constituents is not possible even in principle for some systems - Robert Laughlin / Karl Popper
ArianismArianism, in Christianity, is a Christological[1] concept that asserts that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, is distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to the Father.[2] Arian teachings were first attributed to Arius (c. AD 256–336), a Christian presbyter in Alexandria, Egypt. The Ecumenical First Council of Nicaea of 325 deemed it to be a heresy.
ArminianismArminianism is based on theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic supporters known as Remonstrants. His teachings held to the five solae of the Reformation, but they were distinct from particular teachings of Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, and other Protestant Reformers.
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Section 4

Question Answer
Ash'arismAsh'arism or Ashʿari theology is an early theological school of Sunni Islam based on clerical authority and rejection of cause and effect reasoning, it was founded by Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324 AH / 936 AD). The disciples of the school are known as Ash'arites, and the school is also referred to as the Ash'arite school. It is considered one of the orthodox theologies in Sunni Islam alongside the Maturidi.
AtomismAtomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible"is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions. The atomists theorized that nature consists of two fundamental principles: atom and void. Unlike their modern scientific namesake in atomic theory, philosophical atoms come in an infinite variety of shapes and sizes, each indestructible, immutable and surrounded by a void where they collide with the others or hook together forming a cluster. Clusters of different shapes, arrangements, and positions give rise to the various macroscopic substances in the world.
Australian RealismAustralian realism, also called Australian materialism, is a school of philosophy that flourished in the first half of the 20th century in several universities in Australia including the Australian National University, the University of Adelaide, and the University of Sydney, and whose central claim, as stated by leading theorist John Anderson, was that "whatever exists … is real, that is to say it is a spatial and temporal situation or occurrence that is on the same level of reality as anything else that exists". Prominent players included John Anderson, David Malet Armstrong, J. L. Mackie, Ullin Place, J. J. C. Smart, and David Stove.
AverroismAverroism refers to a school of medieval philosophy based on the application of the works of 12th-century Andalusian Islamic philosopher Averroes, an important Muslim commentator on Aristotle, in 13th-century Latin Christian scholasticism. The term Averroist was coined by Thomas Aquinas.
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Section 5