medstudent2016's version from 2016-12-06 23:31

Section 1

Question Answer
scalp layersskin->connective tissue->aponeurosis->loose areolar CT->pericranium
superficial CT layer of skulldense, fat / contains BV and nerves / BV remain open in scalp wounds bc of the density of CT
scalp aponeurosiscalled the epicranius
danger area of scalpareolar CT layer / infections can easily travel from anterior to posterior
emissay veinvery small vein from scalp, through bone, and into dura sinus / no valves
diploic veinbegins in diploe part of bone and drains to dural sinus
Function of the aponeurosis: attachment for muscle bellies
the frontal belly of occipitofrontalis muscle: pulls the scalp anteriorly, wrinkles the forehead and elevates the eyebrows
the occipital belly of the occipitofrontalis muscle: pulls the scalp posteriorly, smoothening the skin of the forehead
the superior auricular muscle: a specialized posterior part o the temporoparietalis, it elevates the auricle of the external ear.
Function of the loose areolar tissue: contains a lot potential spaces that can distend with fluid in the event of injury or infection.
It allows for free movem. of the scalp proper =

Section 2

Question Answer
cranial nerves to scalpV1-V3 / anterior and lateral scalp but not posterior to ear / anterior up until vertex
CN V1supratrochlear and supraorbital (lateral to troch)/ medial and anterior scalp for troch, most of the anterior and superior skull for orb
CN V2zygomaticotemporal / anterior-lateral skull
CN V3aurioctemporal / lateral skull anterior to the ear
lesser occipital nervelateral skull posterior to ear / ventral rami / C2/3
great occipital nerveposterior-lateral scalp / dorsal rami / C2
third occipital nervemedial-posterior scalp / dorsal rami / C3
internal carotid arterybranches to opthalmic and then to supratrochlear and supraorbital which follow the nerves
external carotid arterybranches to superficial temporal (lateral anterior to ear), posterior auricular (lateral posterior to ear), and occipital (posterior)
C1 does not havea dermatome
CN V1 doesforehead and majority of superior scalp
CN V2 doessmall area of scalp between V1 and V3 and maxilla
CN V3 doeslateral scalp just anterior to ear and mandible

Section 3

Question Answer
skin of face contains numerous sweat and sebacous glands
skin of face connected to bone byloose CT layer / no deep fascia present in face
bones of facelacrimal (2), vomer (form nasal septum), palatine (2-hard palate), inferior nasal conca (2), ethmoid, zygomatic (2), maxilla (2), mandible, nasal (2)
sensory innervation of face provided bythree branches of trigeminal nerve
opthalmic nerve branches (V1)supratrochlear, supraorbital, lacrimal, infratrochlear (medial corner of eye), external nasal (nose)
upper eye lid and eyebrow innervationsupratrochlear, supraorbital, and lacrimal
opthalmic nerve brances in general innervatemedial half of nose, eyebrow, upper eyelid, medial forehead
maxillary nerve branches (V2)infraorbital, zygomatic-facial (lateral corner of eye), zygomatic-temporal (lateral forehead)
maxillary nerve brances in generallateral nose, upper lip, lower eye, lateral forehead
mandibular nerve brances (V3)mental (chin and lower lip), buccal (cheek-lateral), auricotemporal (ear)
mandibular nerve branches in generalchin (except most inferior portion), lower lip, lateral cheek, small part of most lateral forehead

Section 4

Question Answer
main artery to face isfacial artery from the ECA
face blood supplyfacial, superficial temporal, transverse facial (branch of superficial temporal), supraorbital/supratrochlear
every artery hasaccompanying vein
facial vein vs arteryvein is straight while artery is not
danger areatriangle from below eye, lateral to nose, down to just below the lips / facial vein is nearby and swelling hinders it so blood filled with pathogens goes to cavernous sinus instead
branches of facial arterysubmental, inferior/superior labial, angular (termination running up to below eye)
facial artery pathwaybranches from ECA to run through submandibular gland and then up lateral face lateral to the mouth and nose
superficial temporal artery pathwaylateral side of face just anterior to the ear / maxillary branches off inferior to ear runnign medially / transverse facial follows maxillary but branches after it / supplies lateral head
facial vein drianage besides jugular systemfacial->inferior opthalmic->cavernous / facial->deep facial->pterygoud plexus->cavernous

Section 5

Question Answer
muscles of face embedded insuperficial fascia of face
all facial muscles innervated byfacial nerve
all facial muscles derived from2nd arch
wrinkling related toelasticity of skin
botoxparalyzes facial muscles so wrinkles not created and muscles at constant tone

Section 6

Question Answer
frontalis musclefound in the forehead
orbicularis oculiencricles eye / closes eye tightly
orbicularis orisencricles lips / purse lips
zygomaticus majorsuperior corner of lip / smiling in concert with orbicularis oris
levator labia superiorlift upper lip
levator labia superioris alaque nasiacts with levator labia superioris to raise upper lip and flare nostrils
levator angli orisdeep to superioris / raising corner of mouth
depressor angli orisdepressing corner of mouth
depressor labii inferiorislower lower lip
buccinatorsucking / very pronoucned in bass players / chewing to keep food b/w teeth (keep tone on oral cavity)
occipitofrontalishas frontal and occipital belyl with galea aponeurotica between them going over superior skull

Section 7

Question Answer
facial nerve suppliesall muscles of facial expression but does not supply the skin overlying them
facial nerve exits skull viastylomastoid foramen (between styloid and mastoid processes of temporal bone) to supply the muscles
facial nerve pathwayenters bone via internal acoustic meatus (petrous portion of temporal bone)->travels in bone->exit through stylomastoid foramen->branches to parotid gland, stylohyoid, posteiror belly digastric, muscles of auricle and occipitalis muscle
facial nerve in parotid gland isembedded / courses throguh and branches into temporal, zygomatin, buccal, marginal mandibular, and cervical
facial nerve provides motor components to muscles ofsecond arch
transection of facial nerve results inloss of function to muscles of facial expression (Bell's palsy) / most frequently associated with middle ear infection

Section 8

Question Answer
parotid gland are thelargest salivary glands in the body
parotid duct passes oversurface of masseter muscle, pierces buccinator muscle, and opens on mouth adjacent to second upper molar
structures that traverse or lie deep to parotid arefacial nerve, superficial temporal artery, retromandibular vein, auricotemporal nerve
superficial temporal artery emergesfrom superior part of parotid
retromandbular vein emerges frominferior aspect of parotid