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SAT Biology - Chapter 8 - Photosynthesis - Barron's

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celine's version from 2018-01-31 16:29

Section

Question Answer
The process by which light energy is used to make glucose. Carried out by all organisms in the Plant kingdom as well as by algae in the Protista kingdom.Photosynthesis
The gain of electronsReduction
Photosynthesis is a ——————— reaction because the carbon in carbon dioxide is gaining electrons from the hydrogen in water.Reduction
An organelle enclosed by a double membrane. It contains grana where the light-dependent reactions occur and stroma where the Calvin cycle occurs.Chloroplast
All green plant tissues can photosynthesize, but in most plants, but the majority of photosynthesis usually takes place in the ———————. Leaves
The cells in a middle layer of leaf tissue called the ——————— are the primary site of photosynthesis.Mesophyll
Small pores called ——————— are found on the surface of leaves in most plants, and they let carbon dioxide diffuse into the mesophyll layer and oxygen diffuse out.Stomata (singular, stoma)
Each mesophyll cell contains organelles called ———————, which are specialized to carry out the reactions of photosynthesis.Chloroplasts
Within each chloroplast, disc-like structures called ——————— are arranged in piles like stacks of pancakes that are known as ———————.Thylakoids, Grana (singular, granum)
The fluid-filled space around the grana is called the ———————, and the space inside the thylakoid discs is known as the ———————. Stroma, Thylakoid space
Substances that absorb light in the visible spectrum are calledPigments
Pigments that absorb light energy and use it to carry out photosynthesis.Photosynthetic pigments
The membrane of each thylakoid contains green-colored pigments called ——————— that absorb light. chlorophylls
Green photosynthetic pigmentChlorophyll a
The pigments that don't participate directly in the light reactions but assist in photosynthesis by capturing and passing on photons of light to chlorophyll a antennae or accessory pigments
List accessory pigmentsChlorophyll b, carotenoids, and phycobilins
Pigment that is green and absorbs all other wavelengths of light besides greenChlorophyll b
Pigments that are yellow, orange, and red and responsible for the color of carrotsCarotenoids
Pigments that are red and found in red algae that live deep in the ocean where there is very little lightPhycobilins
Two stages in PhotosynthesisThe light-dependent reactions and the light-independent reactions
The light-dependent reactions take place in the ——————— and require a continuous supply of light energy. ——————— absorb this light energy, which is converted into chemical energy through the formation of two compounds,——————— and ———————. In this process, water molecules are also converted to oxygen.Thylakoid membrane, Chlorophylls, ATP, NADPH
Light-independent reactions are also called The Calvin cycle
The Calvin cycle, also called the light-independent reactions, takes place in the ——————— and does not directly require light. Instead, the Calvin cycle uses ATP & NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to fix carbon dioxide and produce three-carbon sugars called ——————— Stroma, PGAL or G3P
PGALPhosphoglyceraldehyde or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate or G3P
In Light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle), CO2 combines with protons and electrons carried from the light reactions by NADP to produce sugar. The incorporation of CO2 into a sugar molecule is called Carbon fixation
The function of Light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle) is to produce ———————PGAL (sugar)
Large amounts of ATP are required to keep the Light-independent reactions (Calvin cycle) running and all the necessary ATP is produced during the ———————Light-dependent reactions
What organelle is the site of photosynthesis in plants?Chloroplasts
Glucose; reactants or products in photosynthesis?Product
Water; reactants or products in photosynthesis?Reactant
Oxygen; reactants or products in photosynthesis?Product
CO2; reactants or products in photosynthesis?Reactant
Equation correctly summarizes the process of photosynthesis?Carbon dioxide + Water ⟶ Glucose + Oxygen
The light-dependent reactions take place in the ———————, and the Calvin cycle takes place in the ———————.Thylakoid membrane, Stroma
Layer of the leaf that contains tightly packed cells that contain chloroplasts. This is where the majority of photosynthesis occurs.Palisade layer
Layer of the leaf that contains chloroplasts and carry out photosynthesis but is less tightly packed and are surrounded by air spaces, which allow for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.Spongy Mesophyll
Clear layer that does not carry out photosynthesis but protects delicate underlying cells and allows light to pass into the leaf.Epidermis Layer
Waterproof layer above epidermis that minimizes water loss.Cutin
Openings in leaves to exchange photosynthetic gases: water vapor, carbon dioxide, and oxygenStomates
Cells that control the opening and closing of the stomates.Guard cells
In plants and algae, photosynthesis occurs in special parts of the cell called chloroplasts; located in the leaves and stems. Whereas most plants perform what is known as C3 photosynthesis, plants that have adapted to hot environments perform a modified form known as ——————— .C4 photosynthesis
A "normal" plant—one that doesn't have photosynthetic adaptations to reduce photorespiration—is called a ———————. C3 plant
——————— plants minimize photorespiration by separating initial CO2 fixation and the Calvin cycle in space, performing these steps in different cell types. C4
In C4 plants, the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle areV physically separated, with the light-dependent reactions occurring in the mesophyll cells and the Calvin cycle occurring in special cells around the leaf veins. These cells are called ——————— Bundle-sheath cells
C4 plants are common in habitats that are hot, but are less abundant in areas that are cooler. Examples are Crabgrass, sugarcane and corn
Some plants that are adapted to dry environments, such as cacti and pineapples, use the ——————— to minimize photorespiration. This name comes from the family of plants, the Crassulaceae, in which scientists first discovered the pathway.Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) pathway
Plants that use CAM photosynthesis not only avoid photorespiration, but are also very water-efficient. Their stomata only open at ———————, when humidity tends to be higher and temperatures are cooler, both factors that reduce water loss from leaves. CAM plants are typically dominant in very hot, dry areas, like deserts.Night
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