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SAT Biology - Chapter 7 - Cell Respiration - Barron's

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celine's version from 2018-01-31 01:41

Section

Question Answer
The special high-energy molecule that stores energy for immediate use in the cell and consists of adenosine (the nuceotide + ribose) plus 3 phosphatesATP - Adenosine triphosphate
The mitochondria is enclosed by 2 membranes, an ——————— and an ——————— that is folded. Outer membrane, Inner cristae membrane
The inner cristae membrane divides the mitochondria into 2 internal compartments, the ——————— and the ———————Outer compartment, Matrix
Krebs Cycle takes place in the ———————Matrix
The electron transport chain takes place in the ———————Inner cristae membrane
2 phases of cell respirationAnaerobic, Aerobic
A way cells make energy when they do not have access to oxygen; an example of this type of process is glycolysis.Anaerobic respiration
A way cells make energy when they have access to oxygen; one molecule of glucose (a sugar) is used to make 36 molecules of energy (ATP).Aerobic respiration
If oxygen is not present (anaerobic), glycolysis is followed by ——————— or ———————Alcohol fermentation, Lactic acid fermentation
If oxygen is present (aerobic), glycolysis is followed by the ———————, ——————— & ———————The Krebs Cycle, The electron transport chain, Chemiosmosis
Glycolysis + Alcohol fermentation or Lactic acid fermentationAnaerobic respiration/Fermentation
Anaerobic phase of cell respirationFermentation
2 types of fermentation1. Alcohol fermentation 2. Lactic acid fermentation
The process by which certain cells convert pyruvate from glycolysis into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the absense of oxygenAlcohol fermentation
Occurs during strenuous exercise when the body cannot keep up with the increased demand for oxygen by skeletal muscles. Pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis converts to lactic acid and builds up in muscles, causing fatigue and burningLactic acid fermentation
Aerobic respiration consists of 3 processes calledGlycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and The electron transport chain
The anaerobic phase of aerobic respirationGlycolysis
Glycolysis occurs in the ———————Cytoplasm
Glycolysis produces ——————— and a net gain of ——————— ATPPyruvic acid, 2
Glycolysis releases ——————— ATP molecules, resulting in a net gain of ——————— ATP4, 2
The first stage of the aerobic phase of cellular respirationThe Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle
Which product of pyruvate oxidation enters the Krebs cycle?Acetyl-CoA
Acetyl CoA, reactant or product of the Krebs cycle?Reactant
Carbon dioxide, reactant or product of the Krebs cycle?Product
NAD+, reactant or product of the Krebs cycle?Reactant
NADH, reactant or product of the Krebs cycle?Product
FADH₂, reactant or product of the Krebs cycle?Product
FAD, reactant or product of the Krebs cycle?Reactant
Coenzymes that shuttle protons and electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chainNADH & FADH2
NAD⁺ is the ——————— form; NADH is the ——————— formoxidized, reduced
FAD⁺ is the ——————— form; FADH₂ is the ——————— formoxidized, reduced
The final stage of cellular respirationOxidative phosphorylation
Oxidative phosphorylation is made up of two closely connected components: the ——————— and ———————the electron transport chain, chemiosmosis
In ———————, electrons are passed from one molecule to another, and energy released in these electron transfers is used to form an electrochemical gradient. the electron transport chain
In ———————, the energy stored in the gradient is used to make ATP.Chemiosmosis
2 important functions of the electron transport chain?1. Regenerates electron carriers 2. Makes a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
Structure in the membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts when ATP is formedATP Synthase
Proteins that play a key role in the electron transport chain in mitochondria and chloroplastsCytochromes
Oxidizes NADH to NAD+ - A property of ETC or chemiosmosis?ETC
Creates a proton gradient - A property of ETC or chemiosmosis?ETC
Makes ATP using a proton gradient - A property of ETC or chemiosmosis?Chemiosmosis
Oxidizes FADH2 to FADH - A property of ETC or chemiosmosis?ETC
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