SAT Biology - Chapter 5 - The Cell (transport) - Part 2- Barron's

celine's version from 2018-01-30 17:13


Question Answer
Cell membranes are ———————-, regulating which substances can pass through, as well as how much of each substance can enter or exit at a given time. Selective permeability is essential to cells’ ability to obtain nutrients, eliminate wastes, and maintain a stable interior environment different than that of the surroundingsselectively permeable
The substance that does the dissolvingSolvent
The substance being dissolvedSolute
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution.Hypertonic
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution. Hypotonic
Two solutions containing equal concentrations of solute.Isotonic
The movement of molecules down a concentration gradient from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration and NEVER requires energy. Passive Transport
Passive Transport occurs either by ——————— or by ———————Diffusion, Osmosis
2 types of diffusionSimple Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion
The movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration. The steeper the gradient the faster the rate of diffusion. Simple Diffusion
The diffusion in which molecules diffuse across the plasma membrane with assistance from membrane proteins, such as channels and carriers.Facilitated Diffusion
The diffusion of water across a membraneOsmosis
Cell shrinking; occurs when a cell is in a hypertonic environmentPlasmolysis
The movement of molecules against a gradient which requires energy, usually in the form of ATP. Active Transport
A form of bulk transport in which materials are transported from the inside to the outside of the cell in membrane-bound vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane.Exocytosis (exo = external, cytosis = transport mechanism)
The various types of active transport that move particles into a cell by enclosing them in vesicle made out of plasma membrane.Endocytosis (endo = internal, cytosis = transport mechanism)
Endocytosis can be further subdivided intoPhagocytosis, Pinocytosis, and Receptor-mediated endocytosis.
A form of endocytosis in which large particles, such as cells or cellular debris, are transported into the cell.Phagocytosis (literally, “cell eating”)
A form of endocytosis in which a cell takes in small amounts of extracellular fluid. Pinocytosis (literally, “cell drinking”)
A form of endocytosis in which receptor proteins on the cell surface are used to capture a specific target molecule. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Elaborate molecule that sits within neuron membranes and pumps and sodium and potassium ions across the membraneSodium-potassium pump
Intake of nutrientsIngestion
Enzymatic breakdown, hydrolysis, of food so it is small enough to be assimilated by the bodyDigestion
Metabolic processes that produce energy (ATP) for all the life processesRespiration
Distribution of molecules from one part of a cell to another or from one cell to anotherTransport
Ability to maintain internal stability, homeostasisRegulation
Combining of small molecules or substances into larger, more complex onesSynthesis
Removal of metabolic wastesExcretion
Removal of undigested wasteEgestion
Ability to generate offspringReproduction
Ability to respond to stimuliIrritability
Moving from place to place (animal cells only)Locomotion
Some total of all the life functionsMetabolism
The main tool for studying cell structure (cytology) Compound microscope
A light microscope that enhances contrast and is useful in examining living, unstained cellsPhase-contrast microscope
Microscope which uses a beam of electrons instead of a beam of light, to produce superior resolving power as well as magnification over 100,000XElectron microscope
Microscope which is useful for studying the interior of cells and its source of electrons is a tungsten filament within a vacuum columns Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
Useful for studying the surface of cells and the resulting images have a three-dimensional appearanceScanning electron microscope (SEM)
A machine that spins mashed tissue so quickly that it separates the homogenate into separate pellets of different organellesUltracentrifuge
A complex technique used to study details of membrane structure under an electron microscopeFreeze fracture or Freeze-etching
A technique used to study the properties of specific cells in vitro (in the laboratory)Tissue culture