SAT Biology - Chapter 5 - The Cell - Part 1- Barron's

celine's version from 2018-01-30 14:57


Question Answer
All living things are made of cells, cells are the basic unit of all organisms, and all cells arise from preexisting cells.Cell Theory
Name the two types of cellsProkaryotes and Eukaryotes
Have no nucleus, or other internal membranesProkaryotes
Contains a single, circular chromosomeProkaryotes
No-membrane -bound organelles such as a nucleusProkaryotes
Contains distinct organelles surrounded by membranes, such as nucleus and mitochondriaEukaryotes
Eukaryotic cells may have evolved when multiple cells joined together into one. They began to live in what we call symbiotic relationships.The mitochondrion and the chloroplast are both organelles that were once free-living cells. They were prokaryotes that ended up inside of other cells (host cells). They may have joined the other cell by being eaten (a process called phagocytosis), or perhaps they were parasites of that host cell. Rather than being digested by or killing the host cell, the inner cell survived and together they thrived. This happened a long time ago, and over time the organelle and the host cell have evolved together. Now one could not exist without the other. Theory of Endosymbiosis
Contains chromosomes made of DNA that is wrapped with special proteins called histones into a chromatin networkNucleus
Contain genes, bits of DNA that code for polypeptides. Chromosomes
Prominent region inside the nucleus that is not dividing where components of ribosomes are synthesizedNucleolus
Made of ribosomal RNA and proteins; are suspended freely in the cytoplasm or bound to endoplasmic reticulumRibosome
A system of membrane channels that traverse the cytoplasmEndoplasmic Reticulum
2 varieties of Endoplasmic ReticulumRough ER & Smooth ER
When ribosomes are attached it is called, ———————- and when there are no ribosomes attached it is called ——————— Rough ER, Smooth ER
The ———————- is where most protein synthesis occurs in the cell.Rough ER
The function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is to synthesize ———————- in the cell and to help in the ———————- of harmful substances in the cell.lipids, detoxification
The organelle in the cell that is responsible for sorting and correctly shipping the proteins produced in the ER. Just like our postal packages, which should have a correct shipping address, the proteins produced in the ER should be correctly sent to their respective address otherwise certain functions in the cell may stop. Golgi Apparatus
A sac of hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes and is the principal site of intracellular digestionLysosome
Created by the Golgi apparatus, these help break down large molecules into smaller pieces that the cell can use.Lysosome
The cell’s powerhouse and packages the energy from the food you eat into ATP molecules.Mitochondroin
Site of cellular respirationMitochondroin
Folded inner membrane of MitochondroinCristae
Single, membrane bound structures that stores water and nutrients for the cellVacuole
Tiny vacuoles found in cells that helps store and transport products produced by the cell.Vesicle
Have a double membrane are only found in plants and algaePlastids
3 types of plastids1. Chloroplasts 2. Leucoplasts 3. Chromoplasts
Found only in plant cells not animal cells and is the organelle in which photosynthesis takes place. Chloroplast
Chloroplasts contain pigment called Chlorophyll
Chloroplasts are ———————- because they contain chlorophyllgreen
Colorless plastids which store starch and found in roots like turnips or potatoesLeucoplasts
Plastids which store carotenoid pigments and are responsible for the red-orange -yellow coloring of carots, tomatoes, daffodils, and many other plantsChromoplasts
Complex network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cytoplasm and gives the cell its shape and enables it to move.Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton is made up of three kinds of protein filaments, ———————-, ———————-, & ———————- . 1. Actin filaments or microfilaments 2. Intermediate filaments 3. Microtubules
Made of a protein called actin and help support the shape of the cell. Microfilaments
Tthick hollow tubes that made up the cilia, flagella, and spindle fibers.Microtubules
Cytoplasmic fibers average 10 nm in diameter and thus are "intermediate" in size between actin filaments (8 nm) and microtubules (25 nm)Intermediate filaments
Found only in animal cells and come into action when the cells divide, helping with the organization of chromosomes.Centrioles
Consists of 2 centrioles at right angles to each otherCentrosome
Consists of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged in a circleCentrioles
Both have the same internal structure and are made of microtubules. The only structural difference is in the length.Cilia and Flagella
In addition to cell membranes, plants have ———————- and provide protection and support for plantsCell Wall
Cell walls of fungi consists of ———————-, while plants and algae have cell walls made of ———————-Chitin, Cellulose
Unlike cell membranes, materials cannot get through cell walls. This would be a problem for plant cells if they don't have special openings called Plasmodesmata
The entire region between the nucleus and plasma membrane; a term for all the contents of a cell other than the nucleusCytoplasm
Semiliquid portion of the cytoplasm.Cytosol
In eukaryotic cells, organelles are suspended in the cytosol and get carried around the cell as the cytoplasm cycles around the cell, a process called Cyclosis
A selectively permeable membrane that controls what enters and leaves the cell.Cell or Plasma Membrane
The lipids that are present in the plasma membrane are calledPhospholipids
The ———————- of the cell membrane is how scientists describe what the cell membrane looks and functions like, because it is made up of a bunch of different molecules that are distributed across the membrane. If you were to look at a cell membrane using a microscope, you would see a pattern of different types of molecules put together, also known as a ———————-. These molecules are constantly moving in two dimensions, in a ———————- fashion, similar to icebergs floating in the ocean. The movement of the mosaic of molecules makes it impossible to form a completely impenetrable barrier.Fluid mosaic model, mosaic, fluid