Russia Interpretations

noorgal's version from 2018-06-12 22:41

Section 1

Question Answer
When was glasnost?1986
What did glasnost do to the government?Destabilised government due to critique because of Gorbie's polices
When was the 27th Party Congress?Feb-March 1986
What happened in the 27th Party Congress?Symbolically announced to break from past 'genuine democracy' - but no planned ideas
When did Tspiko critisise Lenin and Marx and get away with it?1988
When was foreign media accessible to all?1988
When was 19th Party congress?June 1988
What was the 19th Party congress like?Very open, multi candidate elections and party criticised
When was democratisation?1988-90
What were the 1988 reforms which led to election (1989)?multi candidate elections, 1/3 candidates elected by party - 5 CC members lost. Radical Yeltsin= 89% Moscow vote = popular rival. Nationalists campaigned for independence.
What were the consequences of the 1990 republic elections?Anti -communist 'Democratic Russia' won 85% Moscow vote
When was Gorbachev elected as president?March 1990
Why was presidency bad for Gorbachev?Given 18 months emergency powers, censored press and used troops to restore order = dictatorship

Section 2

Question Answer
What % of prisoners in 1975 were nationalists?50%
What was Soviet nationalism?National identity unite as one, celebrate USSR as superpower
Why was Soviet nationalism bad?Non Russians give up national identity + traditions and assimilate. Gorbie didn't realise
How did economy affect nationalism?Economy = invest in non russian republics = uni places + education + quality of life. Bad economy reduces standard of living and undermines union
What was nationalism like under Brezhnev?Republics publish in their own language, uni for non russians, more turkic in CC+Politburo
What was cadre change in republics under Gorbie?effective gov > representative gov. Replace republic leaders with russians = unpopular
Examples of unpopular cadre change in republics?Popular leaders in central asia removed in 86. e.g. riots when popular Kazakh replaced with Russian Kolbin.
How did acceleration affect nationalism?Acceleration meant economy declined and stagnated, associated with new privileged Russian leaders. Inequality
How did Glasnost affect nationalism?Exposed Stalin's crimes against non russians, showed western life and allowed publishing of nationalist content
How did Sinatra doctrine affect nationalism?Gave european countries greater independence allowed nationalism. e.g. poland, hungary, east germany and Czech independent = insp.
When did Lithuanian president announce Lithuanian independence, but Gorbie sanctioned him but didn't attempt to resolve?March 1990
When did Yeltsin insist Russian laws were superior to Soviet laws, fuelling nationalism?May 1990
When was nationalist violence in Armenia start which led to loss of Azerbajan territory for USSR?1988
When did Uzbeks massacre muslim minority, USSR helpless to intervene?1989
When was the Tblisi massacre?April 1989
What happened during the Tblisi massacre? Gov killed 19 nationalist protestors, refused responsibility and blamed army = army hostile to gov
When was green movement in Russia, environ protest against gov ?1987
When did gov send troops to Lithuania after they refused to accept sanctions?Jan 1991, killed 14
when was the 9+1 agreement?April 1991
What was the 9+1 agreement?establish federation of independent states with one president, 76% backing. 6 republics refused to participate
When was Yeltsin elected as president with 57% of vote? June 1991
Why did hardliners rebel against gorbachev?9+1 agreement and union treaty gave republics too much power
When was the emergency committee created against Gorbachev by hardliners?18th August
How did Yeltsin head the resistance against the coup?Had army's support and called workers to strike = success
What were the consequences of the coup?Gorbachev position weakened, party discredited, Yeltsin authority grew, breakdown of USSR
When was the Commonwealth of independent states created (CIS)?21 December 1991
What was the Commonwealth of independent states (CIS)?replace USSR, signed by 11 of former 15 republics

Section 3

Question Answer
What were the three stages of perestroika?Rationalisation, reform and transformation
How did perestroika weaken the government?Rationalisation = decline in econ growth, reform exposed past crimes = loss of faith, transformation = abandoned essential features of communism.
How did 1985 reform cause breakup of USSR?reform not necessary, decline not crisis. Reforms led to crisis which led to breakup - caused by 1990 reforms
How did new vocabulary / 'new thinking' lead to breakup of USSR?embraced new ideas allowed radical alternatives which undermined gov power. e.g. free speech
What were Gorbachev's mistakes?failed to anticipate effects of reform, competing objectives and contradicting policies, failed to win party = undermined own power.
Why was China more successful than Russia?Embraced market reform quicker, more flexible party. Reform without increased political freedom
How did Gorbachev westernise politics?Embraced human rights, pluralism and democracy
When did Gorbachev allow 129 dissidents to migrate abroad to reunite with families?1985
When were travel restrictions eased for citizens?1986
When was article 6 removed from constitution and other parties legalised?March 1990

Section 4

Question Answer
When was rationalisation?1985-86
What was rationalisation? uskorenie (initial reforms) stimulate modernisation of economy for efficiency
When was reform?1987-March 1990
What was reform?Introduce market forces into the economy, greater economic change
What was transformation?Perestroika: abandon one party state and command economy - lost control
When was transformation?March 1990-August 1991
When were alcohol reforms, where production decreased by 50% May 1985
Why did Gorbachev's alcohol reform fail?1987 consumption double of 1960, revenue from alcohol dropped by 9% GDP. Abandoned in 1988
What was acceleration?Increase in investment of economy to modernise.
Why did acceleration fail?Decline in oil prices, borrowed money and debt rose. Couldn't invest
What was the cost of an oil barrel in 1981 compared to 1985?1981: $70 to 1985: 20$
How much did government debt rise? 1981: $18 billion 1988: $27 billion
When was the Law on individual economic activity - legal to make money from small scale jobs?1986
When was the Law on State Enterprise? Devolved power from state to factory management?1987
Why did the law on state enterprise fail?Little power devolved, new management charged high prices = gov debt rose at people turned to black market
When was 500 day program - economic plan that gorbachev backed down from?August 1990
What was private ownership of property reintroduced?January 1991
What was the drop in Gorbachev's approval rating from 1989-90?31%
What percentage did oil production fall by annually?9%
How did Government subsidising prices affect economy?Consumers could buy goods below market rate = debt rose
When / why was there grain shortages, despite produce of 218 million tonnes1990, no longer effective distribution system
When was the government bankrupt?Summer 1991