Rushes, Sedges, and Grasses + Ferns + Bryophytes

amsykes's version from 2018-12-10 19:08

Section 1: Rushes

Question Answer
What is the Rush family?Juncaceae
What are the two genera are present in North America?Juncus (rush) and Luzula (wood-rush)
What characteristic of rush stems differ from that of grasses?Rushes have round stems that lack joints (nodes)
True or false: rushes are generally pollinated by wind?True

Section 2 : Sedges

Question Answer
What characteristic of sedges stems differ from that of rushes and grasses?Sedge stems have edges (triangular shaped stem)
What is the sedge family name?Cyperaceae
What is keel?The deep fold in sedge leaves that gives the leaves an angular appearance
What structure do grasses, rushes, and sedges have in common that allow them to regrow quickly?Basal meristem

Section 3: Grasses

Question Answer
What is the grass family name?Poaceae
True or false: grasses have hollow stems?True
What region of the country has the highest grass diversity?Midwest

Section 4: Ferns

Question Answer
What is a flowerless plant that has feathery or leafy fronds and reproduces by spores released from the undersides of the fronds?Fern
What is a spore-producing plant called?Sporophyte
Spores are produced as a result of meiosis in a specialized multicellular sacs called ________.Sporangia
What is a cluster of sporangia on the leaf surface?Sori (singular)| Sorus (Plural)
In many ferns, each sorus is covered by a flap of tissue called an ________.Indusium

Section 5: Ferns Cont.

Question Answer
Fern leaves are commonly know as ______.Fronds
The petiole, often called a _____, may be smooth or covered with scales or hairs.Stipe
The young leaves of most ferns display _________ _________, which results in the leaved unrolling as they develop.Circinate Vernation
True or False: Sporophytes are diploid?True-sporophytes have two sets of homologous chromosomes per cell.

Section 6: Bryophytes

Question Answer
Seedless, nonvascular plants that are the closest extant relative of early terrestrial plantsBryophytes
First BryophytesLiverworts
Bryophytes are divided into which three phyla?Liverworts (Hepaticophyta), Hornworts (Anthocerotophyta), and Mosses (true Bryophyta)
True or False: Liverworts and hornworts can reproduce asexually through the fragmentation of leaves into gemmae that disperse and develop into gametophytes.True
Explain the alternation of generations life cycle of liverworts and hornwortsspores germinate into gametophytes, the zygote develops into a sporophyte that releases spores, and then spores produce new gametophytes
Small, intact, complete pieces of plant that are produced in a cup on the surface of the thallus and develop into gametophytes through asexual reproductionGemmae

Section 7: Bryophytes Cont.

Question Answer
What are three physical characteristics of Mossesshort flat leaves, root-like rhizoids, and peristomes
True or False: Chemical defense is common in Mosses, Hornworts, and Liverworts.True
One or two rings of tooth-like appendages surrounding the opening of the capsule of many mosses that aid in spreading sporesPeristome
A rootlike structure that acts as support and anchors the plant to its substrateRhizoid
The stalk of a moss sporangium, or occasionally in a liverwortSeta
Explain the alternation of generation life cycle of mossesmale gametophytes and female gametophores, fertilize to form the sporophyte; spores are released from the sporophyte to produce new gametophytes
What are three medicinal properties of sphagnum moss?1. Absorbent 2. Ana-septic 3. Sterile

Section 8: Bryophytes Cont.

Question Answer
Structure or structures of certain vascular plants, mosses, or fungi which act as a cap, flap, or lid.Operculum
What is the spore-producing potion of a Bryophyte?Capsule
What happens when the spores are ripe?The lid falls off, but the release of spores is usually controlled by a fringe of flexible teeth round the capsule mouth.
What is the fringe of flexible teeth round the capsule mouth?Peristome teeth
Mid-vein of moss "leaf"Costa
What kind of moss that have capsules at the tips of their branches, and grow erect, simple or sparsely forked and often cluster in tufts or cushions?Acrocarps
What kind of moss that have capsules coming off a side branch, are usually freely branched and grow in interwoven mats, and generally have long cells, short and double costas, and curved capsules?Pleurocarps

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