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Runway Markings

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rc2017's version from 2017-09-05 17:27

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Question Answer
What is a runway?A Runway is a defined rectangular area on an aerodrome prepared for landing & take off. It’s surface is from threshold to threshold & features, markings, numbers, centre lines but NOT the overrun areas
What is Threshold?Threshold – is the beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing. it is marked by 4 or 8 bars on each side of centre line = 8 or 16 bars, depending upon width of runway
Runway Orientation?– is the Runway number in 2 digits (between 01 & 36) e.g. 27 is pointing towards 270 degrees (with Runway number rounded to the nearest 10 degrees – e.g. 224 degrees = R/W no. 22 & 228 degrees = R/W no. 23). Always Magnetic.
What is Touchdown?Touchdown zone is the portion of runway, beyond the threshold, where landing aero planes should intend to first contact the runway. On a runway, touchdown markers are several white strips.
Aiming pointAiming Point is point at which landing should be aimed at. Usually marked after threshold strips as Fat Rectangular strips.
What is Displaced Threshold?Displaced Threshold is that part of runway displaced due to an obstruction on approach. It does not apply for T/O i.e. it can be used for T/O. it is the area that may be used for taxing, take off & landing roll-out but not for touchdown (cannot touch down due to a high obstruction before it). Generally marked with white paint arrows.
What is Stopway?Stopway is a defined rectangular overrun area, on the ground, constructed at either end of the runway, generally created for emergency. Planes are not allowed to taxi, take-off or land here. It is used for aborted take offs where an aircraft can stop if it fails to attain V1 speed due to say, engine failure. Generally marked with yellow chevrons. Also known as Blast pads
What is Clearway?A clearway is an area beyond the paved runway, free of obstructions and under the control of the airport authorities. The length of the clearway may be included in the length of the takeoff distance available (TODA)
What is centerline?In a Runway, center lines are white strips that run threshold to threshold. In Taxiways, centreline marking consists of a single continuous Yellow line marking the centre of the taxiway
What is sideline?Sideline defines the edge of the useable runway on both sides as a continuous white line. In Taxiways, the sideline is defined by a continuous double striped yellow line. The Shoulder side for both runway/taxiway..beyond the sideline is NOT intended for use.
Take Off Run Available Displaced Threshhold + Runway
Accelerate Stop Distance AvailavableDisplaced Threshhold + Runway + Stopway
Take Off Distance AvailableDisplaced Threshhold + Runway + Stopway + Clearway
Landing Distance AvailableFrom Threshhold + End of the runway available for ground roll, to stoppoint. Ideally the landing distance required should be 60% of the LDA.
Describe the VFR / VMC conditions?VFR is visual Flying Rules VMC conditions are Visual Met Conditions, the minimum of which is required to fly VFR. The minimum conditions required are:

Cloud ceiling of minimum 1500 ft
1000 ft vertical clearance from cloud & 1500 m horizontal clearance from cloud (when no ceiling, this is rule)
Visibility of minimum 5 km horizontally
No flights above FL 140
Speed should not be above 1 Mach
Cannot fly 20 minutes before sunrise & 20 minutes after sunset
Cannot be more than 100 NM from shoreline
What is the special VFR? When can it be used?1500 mtrs visibility it can be used when an instructor is on board
What is RVR?RVR is the Runway visible range – it is measured by a transmissometer installed near the end of the runway It measures the Horizontal visibility
What are the precautions you will take while fueling the aircraft?Min. 15 mtrs away from building or person Min. 30 mtrs away from naked flame Min. 43 mtrs away from a running jet engine ‘No Smoking’ boards at all Places
When will you call flight level?You will call FL after Transitional Level is crossed – you will then stop using ft. When QNE setting is 1013.25, altimeter will read the FL.
What is the maneuvering area & movement area in an aerodrome?Maneuvering Area = R/W + T/W Movement Area = R/W + T/W + Apron
What is Transition AltitudeIn an Aerodrome Reference Point from or within 25 Nautical Miles, the1000 ft from the highest obstacle is called transition altitude. Measured in Feet...in India the Transition Altitude is 4000 feet.
What is the the barometric pressure adjustments to be done when crossing Transition AltitudeTill the Transition layer we set the regional pressure QNH. From 1000-1499 ft ( which is the transition layer), Beyond which is the Transition Level..where we change to QNH to QNE, STANDARD 1013.25. After crossing Ttransition Level, you mention altitude in FLxxx Flight Level. FL 50 – lowest in India & FL 450 – highest in India
How does the transitional Layer differ according to the QNH?IF QNH IS more than 1013.25 - then Transition Layer is 1000 feet, if QNH is less than 1013.25 then 1500 feet is the transition layer
Juhu Aerodrome Circuit PatternRight Hand Circuit Pattern. Other airports are mostly Left Hand Circuit.
Define Circuit PatternAn circuit pattern is a standard path followed by aircraft when taking off or landing, while maintaining visual contact with the airfield.
Also known as Racecourse Track Pattern.

These are 5 basic parts of the pattern: Upwind, Crosswind, Downwind, Base and then Final Approach.

Wherein during each leg the A/C takes a 90 degrees turn to the next leg. A/Cs may choose to directly depart in an Upwind or at 45 degrees.

A/Cs that are approaching may join the Downwind at 45 degrees intercept.

The Upwind - climb to 500 feet. Downwind leg is usually at 2000 feet AGL done 1.5 NM from the runway as parallel.

During base leg, the pilot initiates the descent to reach about 500ft AGL at the end of the leg, and turns another 90°..so that the Final leg is 500 AGL. During Final, the aircraft's longitudinal axis should be aligned on the runway axis in order to land on the runway.
Runway LightsRunway threshold identification lights – White
Runway threshold+wing bar lights – Green
Runway end lights – Red
Runway center line – white
Runway touchdown zone – White
Basic Parts of a TaxiwayTaxiway centerline marking
Runway holding position marking
ILS Critical Approach area marking
Sideline Markings
Towards Apron marking
Taxiway LightsTaxiway Edge lines are Blue and Taxiway Center line is Green. When approaching toward runway, the holding position has yellow lights
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