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Rumi Lymphoreticular Dz

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sihirlifil's version from 2018-04-03 01:42

Section

Question Answer
Suspicion?
Lymphosarcoma/lymphoma (can look like heart disease!)
How does LSA occur?Spontaneously in cattle, SR, wild rumis, camelids
BLV virus in cattle
2 categories of LSASporadic & viral
Sporadic forms of LSA (3)Calf form
Thymic form (also in goats)
Cutaneous
Calf/juvenile LSA: how common? who affected?RARE! B or T cell lines
Most cases 3-6 m.o.
Calf/juvenile LSA: how does it present?Generalized symmetrical lymphadenopathy
Not hot or painful
Ill thrift, anemia, +/- leukemia; spleen, liver, kidney. Die in 2-8w
Thymic LSA: how common? who affected?Not as rare as you expect!
Goats > Beef > Dairy
Thymic LSA: how does it present?Mass at thoracic inlet & anterior mediastinum (space-occupying lesion --> bloat, respiratory issues from compression) (looks like brisket dz)
(anemia & lymphadenopathy uncommon)
Suspicion?
Thymic LSA
Cutaneous LSA: how common? who gets it?RARE! T-cell line only
1-3y.o. cattle
Cutaneous LSA: how does it present?Lumpy bumpy. Necrotic centers, painful, scabs, hair loss. Can regress/reappear, eventually multicentric (involve other lymphoid tissues & variety of organs)
Suspicion?
Cutaneous LSA
Hemal LN Enlargement: what is is?Lentivirus-associated (Bovine immunodeficiency virus)
Hemal LN Enlargement: CSLymphadenopathy, enlarged hemal nodes, persistent lymphocytosis, progressive weakness & emaciation
Bovine Leukemia virus: how common? in who?(aka enzootic or adult bovine lymphoma) MOST COMMON FORM OF LSA in adult cattle! B cell tumors
Bovine Leukemia virus: how do animals get it?Retrovirus, transmissible
Blood or cell transmission. Infection >> disease (only few become clinical!) but always going to have it once infected
BLV: how is it transmitted?Natural: physical contact, insect vectors (Tabanid flies in summer), colostrum & milk (infected lymphocutes), (in utero (10%), venereal very rare)
Iatrogenic: producer/vet can be point source (calving, rectals, needles…)
BLV: CSDepend on organ & site involved
Can be symmetrical or asymmetrical lymphadenopathy, usually not painful, external or external
Weight loss, decreased production, posterior paresis, fever
BLV: Primary organs affectedLN & lymphoid tissue
BLV: Metastasis(HAULS-R) Heart (R atrium)
Uterus
LN
Abomasum
Spine
Retrobulbar
(Intestine)
BLV: DxCS
Serology: BLV status
PCR, ELISA, AGID
Cytology/Histopath
(CBC isn’t conclusive: lymphocytosis, anemia, rarely leukemia)
***BLV: what does serology tell you?Positive =/= lymphoma (common screening test, b/c negative = highly unlikely to be LSA)
BLV: TxRarely indicated, eventually fatal :(
Drain effusions, corticosteroids
BLV: control/preventionSerotest to ID infected animals, then remove/isolate
Isolate & test new additions (can take 6m to seroconvert!)
Control iatrogenic spread!
Manage natural spread (insects, physical contact, colostrum/milk)
Does lymphoma affect other livestock? how?Camelids most common after cattle (most common dx neoplasia in camelids). Multicentric & generalized, no viral association
CS: weight loss, weakness, D+, respiratory distress, often tri-cavitary effusion
Tx: not successful so far :(
Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): what is it?Autosomal recessive disorder of Holstein calves (trace back to 1 bull!)
Leukocytes lack surface glycoproteins which prevent leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells
BLAD: CS?Chronic bacterial infections, premature death
BLAD: Diagnostics!Marked neutrophilia~ >40,000 cells/microL. NO LEFT SHIFT, LYMPHOCYTOSIS, OR MONOCYTOSIS
Hypoalbuminemia, hypergloubulinemia, low BUN/Crt, low glucose
PCR to detect carriers
Anthrax: agent? what does it do?Bacillus anthracis, gram(+) rod
Returns to vegetative form in favorable environment, forms spores when contacts air
Highly resistant, can survive for decades
Anthrax: when do outbreaks occur?After flooding, excavation
Anthrax: why do we care about itZoonotic
Exposure to hides, undercooked meat, contaminated cuts, abrasions
Anthrax: pathogenesisEnters via skin/inhalation/ingestion --> Incubation 1-2w --> Local proliferation in LN --> Septicemia & spread, release toxin --> edema & necrosis
Anthrax: CS if peracuteDeath in 1-2 hours! Fever, tremor, dyspnea, congestion. Terminal convulsions
Anthrax: CS if acuteDepression, lethargy, weakness, anorexia
Fever (107*F!), tachypnea, tachycardia
Congestion, hemorrhages
Decreased milk production, terminal bloody discharges. Death 1-48 (basically septicemia & associated signs)
Anthrax: DxAvoid opening carcass & check before doing necropsy! Suspect if no rigor mortis, failure of blood to clot, dark hemorrhage from orifices, splenomegaly
Collect blood sample via jugular v. for smear & gram stain. Nick ear
Anthrax: if you suspect it…Call ghostbusters! …but actually state/federal vet, they’ll put quarantine
Sample for C&cyt, warn lab!
Close & protect remains: prevent spore formation & distribution
Anthrax: what do you do in the aftermath?Feds may treat (Penicillin & oxytetracycline)
Incinerate remains, disinfect area
Vaccination
Caseous lymphadenitis: agent? who affected?Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis: facultative intracellular g(+) rod
Sheep & goats > camelids, bovine (prevalence increases w/ age due to chronic infection)
T/F Horses can get caseous lymphadenitisFALSE! Can get C. psudotuberculosis infection (Pigeon fever), but form doesn’t cross-react
What’s wrong with this guy
Swollen parotid LN (CS of caseous lymphadenitis)
Caseous lymphadenitis: how do they get it?Environmental exposure (survives 8m in soil)
Caseous lymphadenitis: sequelaPoor production, premature culling, mortality
Caseous lymphadenitis: risk factorsShearing
Draining abscesses, head wounds
Close physical contact, nasal & oral secretions
Sheep dip
Fomites
Caseous lymphadenitis: CS?External & internal forms! Weight loss, abscesses, enlarged LNN, respiratory dz
Caseous lymphadenitis: DxCulture & gram stain a must! Not all abscesses are CL
Serology: difficult to interpret (synergistic hemolysin inhibition, aka SHIT test lol)
Caseous lymphadenitis: tx?No cure :( surgical removal (like to pop), drain abscesses, antibiotics (Draxxin)
Vax: decr shedding, keep infection under control (if >3 animals)
Caseous lymphadenitis: important to remember…ZOONOTIC
Lymphadenitis & pneumonia, same LNN issues
memorize