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Rumenoreticular Dz - 2

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sihirlifil's version from 2018-02-09 11:56

Rumen Acidosis cont'd

Question Answer
Rumen acidosis clinical presentation: HxAccess to highly fermentable feedstuffs by unaccustomed animals (TMR not mixed properly, "weekend help," feedlot steers on new ration, dairy cows if not transitioned during dry period) or in larger than normal amounts
May involve several animals (management issue)
RAPID clinical course
Rumen acidosis clinical presentation: CSAbdominal pain (some flank watching, paddling)
Dehydration
Incr HR & RR
Abdominal distension
Decr rumen motility (splashiness)
Dullness, coma
Scant feces early, then fetid/gray diarrhea
Polioencephalomalacia
Rumen acidosis clinical presentation: how does polioencephalomalacia happen?Ruminants rely on microflora for thiamine production. Acidosis --> thiaminase-producing bacteria proliferate & thiamine-producing bacteria start to die --> blindness, recumbency, death
Rumen acidosis: what would you see on clin path?Incr PCV/TP, azotemia (dehydration)
Decreased HCO3-, increased anion gap (acidosis)
HypoCa, hypoMg (decr intake)
Hyperglycemia (stress)
Neutropenia w/ toxicty (but few reasons to do CBC in rumi)
Rumen acidosis: Dx?Often Hx & CS
Rumen fluid analysis
Rumen acidosis: Rumen fluid analysis(percutaneous, or orogastric if need) Low pH (down to 4.5)
Absent protozoa
G+ bacteria (strep, lactobacillus)
Sour odor
Milky color
Keep in mind when taking rumen fluid sample via orogastric tubeTry to get rid of 300mL waste sample so no salivary contam
Rumen acidosis: Tx depends on?severity! (look @ blood gas)
MILD Rumen acidosis: tx?Alkalanizing the rumen might be enough for mild cases (if pH ~5.5)
Magnesium hydroxide
Intraruminal erythromycin (kill off strep & lacto), follow up with transfaunation
SEVERE Rumen acidosis: tx?Empty the rumen contents!!!
Lavage via Kingman tube (not usually helpful)
RUMENOTOMY: more efficient, less stressful (line & paravertebral block, scoop out contents & bacteria)
Transfaunation
Prevention of rumen acidosisCLIENT EDUCATION!
Add more fiber to diet. More cud chewing --> more saliva --> more buffering
Make dietary changes very gradually
What kind of diet changes can help with rumen acidosis?Allow time for rumen papillae & microflora to change (~6 weeks)
Add HCO3- (not reccommended, shifts pH all over)
Add ionophores (monensin, lasalocid) to reduce lactic acid production
What is SARA? who gets it?Similar to acute rumen acidosis, related to fermentation of CHO but smaller amounts over longer period of time
Not immdediately life-threatening (production effects)
Dairy & feedlot at risk
Why do we risk SARA?Carbs produce more VFAs (pushing to maximize production)
CHOs are good for milk production & growth of feedlot animals
SARA: rumen dmg?Continual rumen acidosis denudes rumen wall, bacteria can be absorbed through it (translocation) --> liver abscesses, CVC syndrome, chronic laminitis
Keratosis of rumen wall hinders VFA absorption
What's this?
Rumen parakeratosis, result of rumen dmg (SARA)
Risk factors for SARAHigh CHO
Not enough fiber in diet: decreased cud chewing (decr saliva = decr buffering)
Feed deprivation: gorge themselves when feed reintroduced
SARA: dx(prevents economic loss) Check rumen pH of 12+ animals. High risk of SARA if >25% have rumen pH <5.5 (lighten up concentrate load!)
SARA: txFIX THE DIET! ensure fiber, add bicarb/ionophores if not willing to give up production effx of high CHO
memorize

TRP

Question Answer
Why are cattle likely to get hardware dz?Indiscriminant eaters, "eat now chew later" (most of mastication when regurg
CONFINED cattle at greater risk b/c exposed to metal from harvesting & feedingequip, baling wire, nails, hypdermic needles
Ingested objects sit where?Reticulum (most ventral & cranialcompartment)
What happens after an object is ingested? (3)Sit harmlessly
Penetrate wall --> local or generalized peritonitis
Penetrate wall & diaphragm --> thoracic abscess, pericarditis, myocarditis
Which type of peritonitis usually happens with hardware dz? Why?Usually localized (slow leak from reticulum) b/c/ cow uses fibrin to wall off bacteria
What's this?
Localized peritonitis from TRP. Thick abscess capsule formed to control infection (cow uses fibrin to wall of bact)
CS of TRPFever
Decreased appetite
Decreased milk production
Tachycardia, tachypnea (pain)
Decreased rumen motility (esp if adhesions form)
Positive on Withers pinch test (kyphosis)
Bruxism (teeth grinding)
Arched stance, abducted elbows, reluctance to move/rise
What's going on here?
Grunt test
If pericarditis, what are the CS?Similar: fever, tachycardia, tachypnea. Muffled heart sounds & pericardial friction rubs
Might see RHF
*Signs of RHFAscites, venous distension, engorgement of milk vein
CS of CHRONIC hardware dzWeight loss, poor lactation, rough hair coat, vagal indigestion
What is this
Pericarditis from FB penetration
TRP dx: HematologyLeukopenia early, leukocytosis chronic
Fibrinogen more helpful: >1000mg/dL
Anemia may develop if chronic
TRP dx: ChemIncr globulin fraction (ongoing long term inflam)
Electrolyte disturbances
Is Abd US helpful?Check cranioventral abdomen, around xyphoid, for evidence of abscess or peritonitis
If see fluid, know where attempt to do abdominocentesis
Are abdominal rads helpful?Really only feasible in referral setting, need MASSIVE amount of ratiation. all you can really expect to see is radio-opaque object
TX of hardware dzRumenotomy: remove FB, drain abscesses into rumen
Long-term antibx
Transfaunation post-op (vagal indigestion)
Supportive care: pain management
Administer magnet!
TX of hardware dz WHEN IT PENETRATES PERICARDIUM:US-guided drainage
What is this? when would you do it?
Pericardiocentesis! rumenotomy not enough to fix RHF. Ultrasound-guided, use spinal needle to get sample & some drainage at left 5th ICS, go in caudal to get something into 3rd ICS. Sumbit fluid for cytology & culture if necessary
Iff too much fibrin, cant really get fluid --> pericardectomy & lavage (for valuable animals)
Prognosis of TRPFair if peritonitis localized, GRAVE if diffuse :( even if animal survives, not in the clear (abdominal abscesses lead to long-term poor doing
Vagal indigestion: infection/inflam --> enteric nervous system dmg & intra-abdominal adhesions
Prevention of TRPClean up the environment!
Give cows prophylactic magnets
Put magnets on all feed equipment to catch any hardware in food
memorize

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