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baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-12-14 13:43

LECTURE 1

Question Answer
InquiryA process “Raising questions about the topic”
Researchdefined as a careful, systematic study in a systematic study in a field of knowledge that is undertaken to discover or stablish facts or principles (Webster, 1984)
Carry out a particular systematic Order or researchdiscover truths
ResearchSystematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or a solution to a problem, to validate or test man existing theory
(1) Source of information to make decisions, (2) Improvement of health, (3) Accurate teaching approaches, (4) Identifying interventions4 Values of Research
(1) helps us answer questions, solve problems and make decisions, (2) enables us to see and understand how and why a situation or a problem exists, (3) helps us discover new things and ideas, (4) allows us to validate existing theories or generate new ones, (5) helps us identify and understand the causes and effects of a situation or a phenomenonResearch has several (5) functions:
Quantitative Researchinvestigation of via statistical, mathematical or numerical data or computational techniques
Quantitative Researchquantify or reflect in numbers the observations on the characteristics of the population being studied.
Quantitative ResearchIt measures the number the number of respondents or objects possessing a particular characteristic.
Quantitative ResearchIt emphasizes precise measurement often times requires statistical analysis of
Qualitative ResearchAre WORDS! Not numbers
Qualitative ResearchDo not ask for Quantity but Quality
Case Study, Grounded Theory, Phenomenology, Ethnography, HistoricalMain Types of Qualitative Research
Case StudyAttempts to shed light on a phenomena by studying in depth a single case example of the phenomena.
Case Studycan be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution.
Grounded TheoryIt is developed inductively from a corpus of data acquired by a participant-observer
PhenomenologyDescribes the structures of experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines.
EthnographyFocuses on the sociology of meaning through close field observation of socio-cultural phenomena. Typically, the ethnographer focuses on a community.
HistoricalSystematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events. (Gay, 1996
Content Validation things to measure against Items on the questionnaire
Predictive Validation relationship between past performances and (present)reality/ responses
Concurrent Validations reality vs. responses
Face Validation in a way similar to content validation.
APA & IMRADFormats used
ReferenceMaterials that have been utilized
BibliographyNot necessarily seen in the research
memorize

LECTURE 2

Question Answer
Moralsgenerally refer to an unwritten set of values that provide a frame of reference that we use to help our decision-making and regulate our behaviour.
Ethics Ethics generally refer to a written code of value principles that we use in a particular context.
Research ethicsprinciples to make decisions about what is acceptable practice in any research project.
Moral and legal rights Why do we need ethical codes?
(1) Must all legal requirements, (2) Research must conform with international standardsPrinciples of Research Ethics
(1) Beneficence, (2) Non-malfeasance, (3) Informed consent, (4) Confidentiality/AnonymityDeclaration of Helsinki
(1) Infants and children, (2) People with learning or communication difficulties, Medical and social patients, Psychological patients, Addiction Vulnerable' participants
memorize
: consent, protection of participants, debriefing, confidentiality, observational research, deception, withdrawal from the research,data storage.

LECTURE 4

Question Answer
ObjectivesDefine what is statement/research problem
ObjectivesResearchable problem from non researchable problem
ObjectivesIdentify and explain the characteristic of a good research problem
ObjectivesGive examples of researchable problem
ObjectivesFormulate their own research problem
Research ProblemGives feeling of discomfort
Research ProblemWorry about how things are
Research ProblemCondition you want to improve or eliminate
Research ProblemQuestions that needs to be answered
Research ProblemInformation gaps
Research ProblemTheories for validation
Research Problem Issue that needs to be settled
Focus QuestionInitially the state ment of the problem is stated in a form of a question which serves as the......
(1)Aim and purpose, (2) Subject matter or topic to be investigated, (3) The place of locale, (4) The period of time of the studying, (5)Population from whom the data is to be collectedElements of research problem
(1) There must be an existing difficult or disturbing situation, (2) There should be a discrepancy of what and what should be, (3) Cause of discrepancy should be unknown(3) RESEARCHEABLE PROBLEM must need this:
TRUETRUE OR FALSE. IF A CONDITION IS EXPECTED TO HAPPEN IT IS NOT RESEARCHEABLE
(1) MUST BE RELEVANT, (2) FEASIBLE, (3) MUST BE CLEAR, (4) MUST BE ETHICALCHARACTERISTIC OF A GOOD PROBLEM
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LECTURE 5

Question Answer
The titleFormulated before the research work, may be revised and refined during the course of research
The titleMust contain, subject matter, locale, population, period when data is gathered or will be gathered
The titleMust be brief, and concise as possible
The titleMust be broad enough to include all aspects of the subject matter studied or to be studied (indicates what is expected to be found inside the paper)
The titleAvoid “an Analysis of” “A study of” and Investigation of”*
The titleMust be written in an inverted pyramid (more than one line)
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LECTURE 6

Question Answer
APASelection of headings, tone and length
APAPunctuations and abbreviations
APAPresentation of numbers and stat
APAConstruction of tables and figures
APACitation references
APAOther elements that are part of a manuscript
Summary/Paraphraserestating another idea in your own words
Direct QuoteUse actual London II
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