defined as a careful, systematic study in a systematic study in a field of knowledge that is undertaken to discover or stablish facts or principles (Webster, 1984)
Carry out a particular systematic Order or research
Systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or a solution to a problem, to validate or test man existing theory
(1) Source of information to make decisions, (2) Improvement of health, (3) Accurate teaching approaches, (4) Identifying interventions
4 Values of Research
(1) helps us answer questions, solve problems and make decisions, (2) enables us to see and understand how and why a situation or a problem exists, (3) helps us discover new things and ideas, (4) allows us to validate existing theories or generate new ones, (5) helps us identify and understand the causes and effects of a situation or a phenomenon
Research has several (5) functions:
investigation of via statistical, mathematical or numerical data or computational techniques
quantify or reflect in numbers the observations on the characteristics of the population being studied.
It measures the number the number of respondents or objects possessing a particular characteristic.
It emphasizes precise measurement often times requires statistical analysis of
Are WORDS! Not numbers
Do not ask for Quantity but Quality
Case Study, Grounded Theory, Phenomenology, Ethnography, Historical
Main Types of Qualitative Research
Attempts to shed light on a phenomena by studying in depth a single case example of the phenomena.
can be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution.
It is developed inductively from a corpus of data acquired by a participant-observer
Describes the structures of experience as they present themselves to consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines.
Focuses on the sociology of meaning through close field observation of socio-cultural phenomena. Typically, the ethnographer focuses on a community.
Systematic collection and objective evaluation of data related to past occurrences in order to test hypotheses concerning causes, effects, or trends of these events that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events. (Gay, 1996
things to measure against Items on the questionnaire
relationship between past performances and (present)reality/ responses