RNA viruses part 1

famizewu's version from 2015-12-27 10:47

Section 1

Question Answer
Poliovirus - clinical presentationparalytic/non-paralytic/abortive poliomyelitis; aseptic meningitis
Poliovirus - transmissionfecal-oral route
Poliovirus - pathobiologyinfects small intestine/ oral pharynx epithelium; viremia, infects CNS via retrograde transport
Poliovirus - treatmentsupportive (iron lungs); passive immunization with IgG; vaccines (Sabin and Salk)
Poliovirus - diagnosisviral meningitis; serology
Coxsackie - clinical presentationA: hand-foot-mouth disease B: myocarditis, pericarditis Both: aseptic meningitis, paralysis, upper RTI
Coxsackie - transmissionfecal-oral or aerosol
Coxsackie -pathobiologytravels in GI tract; infects mucosal epithelial cells, viremia, infects and lyses cells
Coxsackie - treatmentsymptomatic: anti-inflammatory agents; no antivirals or vaccine available
Coxsackie - diagnosisserology; isolate virus

Section 2

Question Answer
Hepatitis A virus - clinical presentationacute hepatitis
Hepatitis A virus - transmissionfecal-oral route
Hepatitis A virus - pathobiologytravels in GI tract; infects mucosal epithelial cells; viremia; infects hepatocytes; CTL response
Hepatitis A virus - treatmentsuppotive (self-limiting); pooled immune globulins; vaccine available
Hepatitis A virus - diagnosisIgM detecting in serum (IgG indicates past infections)

Section 3

Question Answer
Rhinovirus - clinical presentationcommon cold
Rhinovirus - transmissionspreads by contact or aerosol
Rhinovirus - pathobiologylocal inflammation causes exudate, binds ICAM-1 on upper respiratory tract epithelial cells
Rhinovirus- treatmentsupportive; no vaccine b/c too many viral serotypes
Rhinovirus - diagnosissymptoms

Section 4

Question Answer
Norwalk virus - clinical presentationgastroenteritis
Norwalk virus - transmissioncontact or contaminated food/water
Norwalk virus - pathobiologylocal infection and inflammation in proximal small intestine
Norwalk virus - treatmentself-limiting; rehydration if severe fluid loss
Norwalk virus - diagnosisnot typically done; stool specime: visualize virus

Section 5

Question Answer
Hepatitis E virus - clinical presenationacute hepatitis
Hepatitis E virus - transmissonfecal-oral route
Hepatitis E virus - pathobiologytravels in GI tract; infects mucosal epithelial cells; viremia; infects hepatocytes; CTL response; kills infected hepatocytes
Hepatitis E virus - treatmentnone
Hepatitis E virus - diagnosissymptoms, rule out HAV

Section 6

Question Answer
Rotavirus - clinical presentationgastroenteritis
Rotavirus - transmissionfecal-oral route
Rotavirus - pathobiologyinfects cells of proximal small intestine; replicates within and lyses cell
Rotavirus - treatmentrehydration; rotavirus vaccine (live oral attenuated)
Rotavirus - diagnosisstool specimen: immunoassay for virus

Section 7

Question Answer
Coltivirus (Colorado Tick Virus) - clinical presentationfever, myalgias, ocular pain, headache
Coltivirus - transmissioncarried in rodents; transferred to humans via wood tick bite
Coltivirus - pathobiologyviremia; virus may infect and cause lesions in any body organ
Coltivirus - treatmentnone
Coltivirus - diagnosisserology; isolation of virus from blood

Section 8

Question Answer
Alphavirus (EEE, WEE, VEE) - clinical presentationencephalitis
Alphavirus - transmissioncarried in birds or horses; transferred to humans via mosquito bite
Alphavirus - pathobiologyenters circulaton and infects endothelial cells; produce viremia; CNS symptoms > high mortality rate
Alphavirus - treatmentsymptomatic; vaccine (formalin-inactivated or attenuated virus)
Alphavirus - diagnosisserology

Section 9

Question Answer Column 3
Rubivirus (Rubella, German measles) - clincal presentationRubella: fever followed by descending rash; congenital rubellacongential malformations
Rubivirus - transmissionaerosol
Rubivirus - pathobiologyvirus infects nasopharync and replicates in local lymph nodes; viremia
Rubivirus -treatmentself-limiting; vaccine (live attenuated rubella virus)
Rubivirus - diagnosisdetection of anti-rubella antibodies

Section 10

Question Answer
Flavivirus - clinical presentationYellow Fever Virus; Dengue Fever Virus ("breakbone fever"), Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (Fever + hemorrhage, shock); St. Louis, Japanese encephalitis
Flavivirus - transmissionMonkeys, birds or humans; transmitted by mosquito bite
Flavivirus - pathobiologyViremia; hepatocytes necrosis; jaundice; macrophages (acute inflammation); CNS (direct damage to neurons)
Flavivirus- treatmentprevention: monitor mosquite count in area;; vaccine Yellow Fever (live-attenuated vaccine); vaccine Japanese Encephalitis (formalin-killed vaccine)
Flavivirus - diagnosisserology; isolate virus

Section 11

Question Answer
Hepatitis C virus - clinical presentationacute hepatitis (jaundice, fever); chronic hepatitis (carrier, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma)
Hepatitis C virus - transmissionblood (transfusion, IV drug use), semen, in utero
Hepatitis C virus - pathobiologyvirus infects hepatocytes; CTL response; kills infected hepatocytes
Hepatitis C virus - treatmentinterferon alpha; ribavirin
Hepatitis C vrius - diagnosisserology

Section 12

Question Answer
Lentivirus - clincial presentationAIDS and opportunistic infections
Lentivirus - transmissionbodily fluids; sexual contact; blood transfer; maternal transfer
Lentivirus - pathobiologyprimary infection; clinical latency stage; advanced disease
Lentivirus - treatmentRT inhibitors; protease inhibitors
Lentivirus - diagnosisdetection of virus by ELISA, Western, PCR

Section 13

Question Answer
HTLV-1/2 - clinical presentationT-cell leukemia, lymphoma; tropical spastic paraparesis
HTLV-1/2 - transmissionsexual contact or blood transfer
HTLV-1/2 - pathobiologyinfection of CD4+ T cells, B cells
HTLV-1/2 - treatment supportive
HTLV -1/2 - diagnosisantibody titers in serum, CSF

Section 14

Question Answer
Deltavirus - clinical presentation hepatitis D
Deltavirus - transmissionblood, sexual contact, or trans-placentally
Deltavirus - pathobiologytravels in blood to hepatocytes, infects cells; replicates and released only from those cells also infected with HBV
Deltavirus - treatmentinterferon alpha; vaccine
Deltavirus - diagnosisdelta antigen detection; IgM antibodies