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rian lesson 8

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rmcts's version from 2016-07-02 15:27

8.1 Short Forms Present Tense

 

Present tense, affirmativedictionaryshort forms
all verbsよむよむ
い-adjectivesかわいいかわいい
な-adjectivesしずか(な)しずかだ
noun + ですがくせいですがくせいだ
memorize

 

Present tense, negativedictionaryshort forms
ru verbsたべるたべない
u verbかくかかない
u verbはなすはなさない
u verbまつまたない
u verbしぬしなない
u verbよむよまない
u verbつくるつくらない
u verbおよぐおよがない
u verbよぶよばない
u verbかうかわない
irr verbするしない
irr verbくるこない
exception verbあるない
い-adjectivesかわいいかわいくない
な-adjectivesしすか(な)しすかじゃない
noun + ですがくせいですがくせいじゃない
memorize

8.2 Short Forms 1) In informal/casual speech, as signs of intimacy

 

Used between close friends, family members, senior to junior partners

 

Question sentences do not end with か
Question Answer
What kind of music do you listen to?どんなおんがくをきく?
memorize

 

だ and noun + です are usually dropped at the very end of a sentence or is followed by ね or よ
Question Answer
Mary is a sophomore. (だ dropped)メアリーさんはにねんせい
Mary is a sophomore. (ね or よ)メアリーさんはにねんせいだよ
memorize

 

Question Answer
はいうん
いいえうんん
memorize

8.3 Short Forms 2) In represented or quoted speech "I think that..." and "They said "..."

 

short form + とおもいます "I think that..."
short form + といっていました "They said "..."

 

Question Answer
I think Takeshi likes Mary.わたしは、たけしさんはメアリーさんがすきだとおもいます
Sue said that there would be an exam tomorrow.スーさんは、あしたしけんがあるといっていました
memorize

8.4 Short Forms 3) In making negative requests "Please don't..."

 

negative short form + でください "Please don't..."

 

Question Answer
Please don't take pictures here.ここでしゃしんをとらないでください
memorize

8.5 Short Forms 4) In expressing ideas like "I like doing..." or "I am good at doing..."

 

Verbs and adjectives are treated like nouns

 

short form + のがすきです "I like doing..."
short form + のがきらいです "I don't like doing..."

 

short form + のがじょうずです "I am good at doing..."
short form + のがへたです "I am not good at doing..."

 

short form + のがとくいです "I am comfortable with..."
short form + のがにがてです "I am uncomfortable with..."

 

Question Answer
I like studying the Japanese language.わたしは、にほんごをべんきょするのがすきです
I don't like cleaning my room.わたしは、へやをそうじするのがきらいです
Robert is good at cooking (to make cooking) meals.ロバートさんはりょうりをつくるのがじょうずです
Takeshi is not a good speaker of English.たけしさんはえいごをはなすのがへたです
I am comfortable with speaking Japanese.わたしは、にほんごをはんすのがとくいです
I am uncomfortable with speaking Japanese.わたしは、にほんごをはなすのがにがてです
memorize

8.6 が

 

To present the subject of a sentence in a way such that the noun will "fill in the blank on the information sheet."

 

Question Answer
Who went to Okinawa?だれがおきなわにいきましたか
ROBERT went to Okinawa.ロバートさんがおきなわにいきました
Which class is the most interesting?このクラスがおもしろいですか
JAPANESE class is.にほんごのクラスがおもしろいです
Who wears glasses in this class?このクラスでだれがめがねをかけていますか
PROFESSOR YAMASHITA does.やましたせんせいがめがねをかけています
memorize

8.7 なにか (something, anything?) and なにも + negative (not...anything)

 

Question Answer
The cat has brought something.ねこがなにかもってきました
Did the cat eat anything?ねこはなにかたべましたか
No, the cat did not eat anything.いいえ、ねこはなにもたべませんでした
memorize