rian lesson 7

rmcts's version from 2016-06-25 06:01

7.1 〜ている An action in progress or a past event that is connected with the present.


Three types of verbs
(1) verbs that describe continuous states (ある, いる). Te-forms with these verbs are never used together.


(2) verbs that describe activities that last for some time (たべる, よむ, まつ). When the te-form of a verb in this group is followed by the helping verb いる, we have a sentence describing an action in progress.
Question Answer
Sue is studying right now.スーさんはいまべんきょうしています
Takeshi is reading a book in English.たけしさんはえいごのほんをよんでいます
I teach English. / I am teaching English (right now).わたしはえいごをおしえています
Mary studies Japanese every day.メアリーさんはまいにちにほんごをべんきょうしています
(3) verbs that describe changes that are more or less instantaneous (けっこんする, すわる)
Question Answer
Professor Yamashita is married.やましたせんせいはけっこんしています
Michio is seated near the window.みちこさんはまどのちかくにすわっています


More examples of verbs that are commonly used in the 〜ている framework.
Question Answer
Sue has a lot of money. (has) もつ, もっているスーさんはおかねをたくさんもっています
Professor Yamashita knows my mother. (knows) しる, しっているやましたwんせいはははをしっています
Tom is a little overweight. (is overweight) ふとる, ふとってるトムさんはちょっとふとっています
My younger brother is very thin. (is thin) やせる, やせているわたしのおとうとはとてもやせています
Mary is wearing/wears a T-shirt. (wears) きる, きているメアリーさんはTシャツをきています
Dad is up and awake. (is awake) おきる, おきているおきる, おきている: おとうさんはおきています
My family lives in Tokyo. (lives in) (すむ, すんでいる)かぞくはとうきょうにすんでいます
My older sister works for a Japanese company. (works for) つとめる, つとめているわたしのあねはにほんのかいしゃにつとめています


Verbs like いく (いっている) and くる (きている) indicate the current states that げんきで from prior movements, not movements that are currently in progress.
Question Answer
Somebody has gone to/is in China. Not: She is going to China.ちゅうごくにいっています
Somebody has come over to visit. Not: Somebody is coming over.うちにきています



7.2 (person)さんは (body part) が (adjective)

Question Answer
Tom has long hair.トムさんはかみがながいです

7.3 Te-forms for Joining Sentences. Adjectives and Nouns.


Question Answer Column 3
noun + ですにほんじんですにほんじんで


Question Answer
The food at that restaurant is inexpensive and delicious.あのみせのたべものはやすくて、おいしいです
The hotel was clean, and we were happy.ホテルはされいで、よかったです
Professor Yamashita is a Japanese and he is about fifty years old.やましたせんせいはにほんじんで、ごじゅっさいぐらいです

7.4 verb stem + にいく, にきる, にかえる

If a person moves to another place in order to do something, we can describe their movement and its purpose this way.


(destination of movement) に, へ (the purpose of movement) に (いく, きる, かえる)


The purpose of movement must be in their stem forms.


(to buy) かう -> かい(ます). (to study) べんきょうする -> べんきょうし(ます)


Question Answer
I went to a department store to buy a bag.デパートに[かばんをかい]にいきました
Mary has come to Japan to study Japanese.メアリーさんはにほんに[にほんごをべんきょうし]にきました

7.5 Counting People


Question Answer
one personひとり
two peopleふたり
three peopleさんにん
four peopleよにん
five peopleごにん
six peopleろくにん
seven peopleしちにん
eight peopleはちにん
nine peopleきゅうにん
ten peopleじゅうにん


To count people for a class, you can add 〜にん after the noun and the particle が


(person) が X にん います


Question Answer
There is one Swedish student in our class.わたしのクラスに(は)スウェーデンじんのがくせいがひとりいます


The place expressions are often followed by には instead of に in this type of sentence.