refers to language that describes concepts rather than concrete images
In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent’s ideas.
an extended narrative in prose or verse in which characters, events, and settings represent abstract qualities and in which the writer intends a second meaning to be read beneath the surface of the story
repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another
a reference to a well-known person, place, or thing from literature, history
Comparison of two similar but different things, usually to clarify an action or a relationship
Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row.
a short, simple narrative of an incident; often used for humorous effect or to make a point
Explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data
the presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by word, phrase, clause, or paragraphs.
short, often witty statement of a principle or a truth about life
usually in poetry but sometimes in prose; the device of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction
writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments
a work that ridicules the style of another work by imitating and exaggerating its elements. . It can be utterly mocking or gently humorous. It depends on allusion and exaggerates and distorts the original style and content.
an element in experience or in artistic representation evoking pity or compassion
term used to describe writing that borders on lecturing. It is scholarly and academic and often overly difficult and distant
the attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or an inanimate object
a form of argumentation, one of the four modes of discourse; language intended to convince through appeals to reason or emotion
point of view
the perspective from which a story is presented
Sentence which uses and or another conjunction (with no commas) to separate the items in a series.
the main character of a literary work
When a writer raises an irrelevant issue to draw attention away from the real issue
Reductio ad Absurdum
the Latin for “to reduce to the absurd.” This is a technique useful in creating a comic effect and is also an argumentative technique. It is considered a rhetorical fallacy because it reduces an argument to an either/or choice
an element in literature that conveys a realistic portrayal of a specific geographical locale, using the locale and its influences as a major part of the plot
Word or phrase used two or more times in close proximity
the art of effective communication, especially persuasive discourse
exposition, description, narration, argumentation
one that does not expect an explicit answer. It is used to pose an idea to be considered by the speaker or audience.
harsh, caustic personal remarks to or about someone; less subtle than irony
A work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of human behavior by portraying it in an extreme way. It doesn’t simply abuse (as in invective) or get personal (as in sarcasm). It targets groups or large concepts not individuals.
a figure of speech that uses like, as, or as if to make a direct comparison between two essentially different objects, actions, or qualities
the voice of a work; an author may speak as himself or herself or as a fictitious persona
A section or division of lines in a poem
A character who does not change significantly throughout the course of a story.
a character who represents a trait that is usually attributed to a particular social or racial group and who lacks individuality; a conventional pattern, expression or idea.
a writer argues against a claim that nobody actually holds or is universally considered weak
an author’s characteristic manner of expression – his or her diction, syntax, imagery, structure, and content all contribute
a personal presentation of events and characters, influenced by the author’s feelings and opinions
form of reasoning in which two statements are made and a conclusion is drawn from them
use of symbols or anything that is meant to be taken both literally and as representative of a higher and more complex significance
a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent a whole, such as using “boards” to mean a stage or “wheels” to mean a car – or “All hands on deck.”
Ability to create a variety of sentence structures, appropriately complex and/or simple and varied in length.
Sentence structures that are extraordinarily complex and involved. They are often difficult for a reader to follow.
the grammatical structure of a sentence; the arrangement of words in a sentence. It includes length of sentence, kinds of sentences (questions, exclamations, declarative sentences, rhetorical questions, simple, complex, or compound).
theme the central idea or “message” or a literary work
the main idea of a piece of writing. It presents the author’s assertion or claim.