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Respiratory Tract Infections

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wuriluxi's version from 2017-11-11 22:47

Section 1

Question Answer
Upper respiratory tract infections includeotitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, epiglottitis, laryngitis
Lower respiratory tract infections includebronchitis, pneumonia
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Section 2

Question Answer
The most common type of otitis media is with effusionFalse
By 1 year, 50% of children will have at least one episode of acute otitis mediaTrue
Second hand smoke decreases the risk of acute otitis mediaFalse
Eustachian tube functions to regulate pressure, protect from nasopharyngeal secretions, drain secretionsTrue
Haemophilus influenzae is the most common pathogen in acute otitis mediaFalse
Acute otitis media resolves spontaneously in the majority of children (81%)True
Duration of treatment for acute otitis media is 10 day in older childrenFalse
70-90% of pharyngitis cases are viralTrue
70% of people with sinusitis will recover spontaneouslyFalse
Antihistamines are contraindicated for sinusitisTrue
Recommend household contacts of epiglottis receive rifampin prophylaxisTrue
A chest xray will be abnormal for someone with acute bronchitisFalse
Contributing factors for chronic bronchitis include smoking, fumes, dust, pollutionTrue
Pneumonia is the most common infectious cause of death in the USTrue
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Section 3

Question Answer
S/sx of acute otitis mediapain, congestion, fever, reddened tympanic membrane
Adverse effects of treatment for acute otitis mediadiarrhea, rash
S/sx of pharyngitissore throat, dysphagia, fever, enlarged tonsils, tonsillar exudate, lymphadenopathy
S/sx of sinusitisfever, cough, mucopurulent nasal discharge, nasal congestion, facial pain, toothache
S/sx of epiglottisfever, drooling, respiratory distress, inspiratory stridor
S/sx of laryngitisstridor, barking cough
S/sx of acute bronchitiscough (non-productive progressing to mucopurulent), malaise, headache, sore throat
S/sx of chronic bronchitisproductive cough with purulent secretions, halitosis, sputum production most days x 3 months
S/sx of pneumoniaabrupt onset, fever, chills, dyspnea, productive cough, tachycardia, tachypnea
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Section 4

Question Answer
Common pathogens in acute otitis mediastreptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis
Common pathogen in pharyngitisstreptococcus pyogenes
Common pathogens in sinusitisstreptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis
Common pathogen in epiglottitishaemophilus influenzae B
Common pathogens in laryngitisparainfluenza, staph. aureus, moraxella catarrhalis, pneumococcus
Common pathogens in acute bronchitiscommon cold, rhinovirus, coronavirus, flu, adenovirus, RSV
Common pathogens in community acquired pneumoniastreptococcus pneumoniae, m. pneumoniae, legionella, c. pneumoniae, virusus
Common pathogens for nosocomial acquired pneumoniastaph. aureus, klebsiella, pseudomonas
Common pathogens in pneumonia in childrenviruses (RSV, flu, adenovirus), m. pneumonia, pneumococcus, group A strep
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Section 5

Question Answer
Non antibacterial treatment of acute otitis mediaanalgesics, antipyretics, local heat, myringotomy, tympanostomy tube
Antibiotic treatment of acute otitis mediaamoxicillin 80-90mg/kg/day
Treatment of recurrent otitis or severe illnessamoxicillin/clavulante (augmentin), cefuroxime axetil (ceftin)
Treatment of acute otitis media in suspected beta-lactamase producing strainsamoxicillin/clavulante (augmentin), tmp/sulfa (bactrim), cefuroxime axetil, azithromycin
Treatment of bacterial pharyngitispenicillin, erythromycin, cephalosporin
Treatment of sinusitisamoxicillin, tmp/sulfa, fluroquinolones
Treatment of epiglottiscefuroxime, cefotaxime, or ceftriaxone
Treatment of acute bronchitismostly symptomatic and supportive, macrolides & fluroquinones if bacterial
Treatment of chronic bronchitisamoxicillin, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides
Treatment of pneumonia in an otherwise healthy adultmacrolide (azithromycin), fluroquinolones (gatifloxacin)
Treatment of pneumonia in the elderlycefuroxime, ceftriaxone, piperacillin/tazobactam
Treatment of pneumonia that developed from chronic bronchitistmp/sulfa, cefuroxime, macrolide
Treatment of aspiration pneumoniaclindamycin
Treatment of nosocomial pneumoniapiperacillin/tazobactam, ceftazidime
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