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Respiratory System

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ness37's version from 2017-05-22 17:39

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Five structuresSpinal column, Rib cage, Pectoral girdle, Pelvic Girdle, Trachea and Bronchial Tree - lungs
Spinal columnVertebrae and 24 articulating ribs - 7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumber (+ 5 Sacral and 3 Coccygeal = fused)
Vertebrae Body, 2 pedicles, 2 lamina, 1 spinal process, 2 transverse processes,
Intervertebral foramenRoot of each spinal nerve (where the vertebrae articulate with each other)
Rib cage and spine12 ribs - 7 true (R1-7), 3 false (R8-10), 2 floating (R10-12). Each rib articulates with corresponding thoracic vertebrae e.g. R1 with T1, R10 with T10
Pectoral Girdle Clavicle (elevates sternum, attaches to sternum through clavicular notch) and Scapula (articulates with upper arm and clavicle)
Pelvic GirdleIlium (articulates with sacrum) and Pubis (joins at public symphysis)
TracheaExtends from C6-T5, starts from cricoid to bifurcation of bronchi, have 16-20 incomplete cartilage rings and is separated by intratracheal membranes
Bronchi Divide into secondary and tertiary bronchi inside lungs (R= larger and shorter, 3 secondary bronchi and 3 lobes -> 10 segments) + (L= divides into 2 secondary bronchi and 2 lobes -> 8 segments)
Primary Inspiration Muscles Diaphragm and Internal and External intercostal muscles (11 pairs, orientated obliquely and in opposite directions)
Secondary Inspiration Muscles Ventral thorax, Dorsal thorax and neck
Primary Expiration Muscles Abdominal wall muscles (3 pairs laterally = ex. + in. obliques + transverse obliques, 1 pair ventrally = transverse abdominis)
Secondary Expiration Muscles 7 muscle pairs in thorax (in. intercostals) 1 pair in abdomen
Diaphragm 2 domes, 3 holes (vena cava, oesophageal hiatus, aortic hiatus) R is higher (liver pushes it up) Insertion = central tendon, 3 origins = sternal, costal and lumbar.
Internal Intercostal Muscles Join at sternum, assist with inspiration, reinforce intercostal spaces
External Intercostal Muscles Join at vertebrae, stronger than internals, Origin = upper rib, Insertion = lower rib, elevate ribs and expands rib cage
Ventral Thorax4 pairs of muscles - (pectoral girdle to ribs), assist movement of arm and shoulder + deep inspiration
Dorsal Thorax6 pairs of muscles - (pelvic girdle + spine to ribs), stabilise/elevate posterior rib cage and elevate various ribs
Neck4 pairs of muscles, elevate first two ribs, sternum and clavicle, increasing anteroposterior volume of thorax
Respiratory innervation 23 spinal nerves (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 3 lumbar)
Diaphragm innervationPhrenic nerve (arrises from 3rd to 5th cervical spinal nerve) L = direct, R = passes through thorax first
Intercostal innervationIntercostal nerves (arise from T1-T11)
Abdominal innervationinnervated by T7 - T12 and L1
Boyle's LawPressure increases and Volume decreases (fluids flow from greater to lesser pressure)
Lung volume at rest 40% full
Lung volume if supine 20% full
Tidal Volume (TV)Normal volume of air displaced between inhalation and exhalation (extra effort is NOT applied)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)Reserve of additional air that can be drawn into the lungs by inspiration
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)Maximal volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after normal expiration
Residual Volume (RV)Amount of air that cannot be expelled after maximum exhalation
Inspiratory Capacity Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume = maximum inspiration
Functional Capacity Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume = air left in lungs after expiration
Vital CapacityInspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume = greatest volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs after taking the deepest possible breath (indicator of breath support)
Total Lung CapacityInspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume + Residual Volume = total of all lung volumes
Vegetative breathing Survival breathing, automatic, respiratory cycle = 40% (in) 60% (out)
Phonation (vocal breathing)Vocal pitch and intensity is constant. Inspiratory Reserve Volume is utilised. Expiratory Reserve Volume is utilised until breath runs out, respiratory cycle = 10% (in) 90% (out)
Conversational speech (vocal breathing)Vocal pitch and intensity is varied (intonation and stress). Vocal fold vibration is intermittent (Voiceless C's), lessInspiratory Reserve Volume and Expiratory Reserve Volume due to frequent and rapid inspirations, use approx 60% of Vital Capacity. Need additional Inspiratory Reserve Volume if screaming, additional Expiratory Reserve Volume if trying to 'hold the floor'.
LungsR = shorter and larger (2 lobes, 10 segments) L= smaller (2 lobes, 8 segments), enclosed in 2 layer membrane (pleura) + pleural cavity between the two with serous fluid, contain alveoli
AlveoliContain 3 types of cells: type 1 cells= epithelium, type 2 cells (breaks up surface tension) and phagocytic cells
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