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Respiratory System

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abisnail's version from 2017-05-21 13:21

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Question Answer
Name the five structures of the respiratory systemSpine, rib cage, pectoral girdle, pelvic girdle, trachea, bronchial tree, lungs
What makes up the pectoral girdle? Clavicle and scapula
What is the pelvic girdle?Muscles attach here and affect rib function
How many lobes are in the right lung?3
How many lobes are in the left lung?2
Why does the left lung have fewer lobes than the right?The heart takes up space
Which lung is shorter and why?The right lung is shorter because of the liver
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Question Answer
How many cervical vertebrae are there?7
What is C1 called?Atlas
What is C2 called?Axis
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?12
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?5
How many sacral vertebrae are there?5
What are the sacral vertebrae fused to?Illeum and illea
How many coccygeal vertebrae are there?3-4
Which vertebra are the smallest?Cervical
Which vertebra are the largest?Lumbar
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Question Answer
How many ribs are there?12
Which part of the spinal column does R1 articulate with?T1
What kind of joint occurs at the articulation of the spinal column and rib cage?Arthroidal (slightly gliding) joint
What is affected by the rotation of the ribcage?Thorax volume
What do R11 and R12 articulate with?Nothing, they are floating ribs
How do R1-7 articulate with the sternum?Cartilage
How do false ribs R8-10 articulate with the sternum?Cartilages merged with R7
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Question Answer
How big is the trachea?Extends from C6 to T5, is 4-5" long and has a 1" diameter
Where is the trachea?The tube from the cricoid cartilage to the bifurcation of the bronchi
Describe the cartilage rings of the trachea16-20 cartilage rings that are incomplete posteriorly to allow the bolus in the oesophagus smooth travel towards the stomach
What is the lining of the trachea?Mucous membrane
How is mucous secreted?Goblet cells
What moves mucous?Cilia
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Question Answer
How are the bronchi divided inside the lungs?Secondary (lobar) and tertiary (segmental)
How many secondary bronchi does the right bronchi divide into?3
What are bronchi made of?Increasingly less cartilage and more smooth muscle tissue
How many segments do the right lobes divide into?10
How many segments do the left lobes divide into?8
How do bronchi divide?Bronchi become bronchioles which become alveoli
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Question Answer
Describe the origin of the respiratory musclesProximal and static
Describe the insertion of the respiratory musclesDistal and moving
What does the diaphragm separate?The thorax and the abdomen
Describe the domes of the diaphragmThe diaphragm has 2 domes, the right is slightly higher because the liver is underneath
Name the holes of the diaphragmAortic hiatus, foramen vena cava, oesophageal hiatus
How many external/internal intercostal muscles are there?11 pairs
How are the external/internal intercostal muscles oriented?Oriented obliquely and in opposite direction
Which of the intercostal muscles are stronger?Externals
What do the internal intercostal muscles do?Assist inspiration and reinforce intercostal muscles
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Question Answer
What do the secondary inspiration muscles do?Assist with additional air intake
What is the ventral thorax made of?4 pairs of muscles from the pectoral girdle to the ribs
What does the ventral thorax do?Assists movement of the arm and shoulder as well as deep inspiration
What is the dorsal thorax made of?6 pairs of muscles from the pelvic girls and spine to the ribs and humerus
What does the dorsal thorax do?Stabilie/elevate the posterior rib cage and elevate various ribs
How many muscles in the neck are involved in secondary inspiration?4
What do the neck muscles do?Elevate the first two ribs, sternum and clavicle, increasing the anteroposterior volume of the thorax
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Question Answer
How many pairs of abdominal wall muscles are involved in primary expiration?4
Name the lateral abdominal wall muscles in primary expirationExterior oblique, interior oblique and transverse abdominus
What do the lateral abdominal wall muscles do in primary expiration?Pulls the lower libs down, compresses anterior and lateral walls of the abdomen
Name the ventral abdominal wall muscles in primary expirationRectus abdominus
What do the ventral abdominal wall muscles do in primary expiration?Pulls down on the sternum and ribs, compresses the anterior wall of the abdomen
How many pairs of secondary expiration muscles are in the thorax?7
How many pairs of secondary expiration muscles are in the abdomen?1
How do the secondary expiration muscles assist expiration?By depressing the ribs
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Question Answer
How many spinal nerves are there?23
How many cervical spinal nerves are there?8
How many thoracic spinal nerves are there?12
How many lumbar spinal nerves are there?3
Which nerve innervates the diaphragm?Phrenic nerve
Where does the Phrenic nerve arise from?3rd - 5th cervical spinal nerves
Describe the path of the Phrenic nerveThe left nerve directly innervated the diaphragm and the right nerve passes through the diaphragm before rising to meet it
Which nerves innervate the intercostal muscles?Intercostal nerves
Where do the intercostal nerves arise from?Spinal nerves T1-T11
Which spinal nerves innervate the abdominals?T7-T12 and L1
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Question Answer
Which lung is shorter and why?The right is shorter because the liver is in the way
The lung is enclosed inA 2-layer membrane called pleura
What is in the pleural cavity?Serous fluid
What does the pleura stick to?Lungs, rib cage and diaphragm, and each other so the lungs follow rib/diaphragm movement
What is the volume of male lungs?5 litres
What is the volume of female lungs?4 litres
What are type I cells in the alveoli?Epithelium
What do type II cells in the alveoli do?Produce pulmonary surfactant to break up surface tension
What is the third type of cell in alveoli?Phagocytic cells
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Question Answer
What is Boyle's law?Volume is inversely proportional to pressure
What does Boyle's law mean?A decrease in volume means an increase in pressure
In which direction do fluids flow?From greater to lesser pressure
Resting volume is whenPulmonary and atmospheric pressures are equal
What type of pressure is created during breathing?Negative pressure
Expansion of the thorax induces 4 reaction that will collapse themPassive expiration
What happens in the lung tissue during passive expiration?Elastic recoil in lung tissue
What happens to the rib cage during passive expiration?Torque reaction to rotatory expansion of the rib cage
What happens to abdominal pressure during passive expiration?Increased intra abdominal pressure as the diaphragm descends, pushing upwards
What role does gravity play in passive expiration?Gravity pulls down on elevating ribs
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Question Answer
How full are the lungs at rest?40%
How full are the lungs when lying down at rest?20%
What is tidal volume TV?Air exchanged in respiratory cycle
What is the average male total volume?600ml
What is the average female total volume?450ml
What is the average minute volume of a male?12 breaths per minute = 7.2 litres
What is the maximum minute volume?150-170ml
What is the inspiratory reserve volume IRV?The extra volume of air you can inspire
What is the average IRV?2500ml
What is the expiratory reserve volume ERV?Using expiratory muscles to expire more air
What is the average ERV?1000ml
What is the residual volume RV?Air left behind in the lungs
What is the average RV?1100ml
What is the average volume of the dead air spaces in the oral tract and bronchi?150ml
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Question Answer
What is inspiratory capacity IC?Maximum inspiration
How do you calculate IC?IC = TV + IRV
What is functional residual capacity FRC?Air left at the end of tidal expiration
How do you calculate FRC?FRC = ERV + RV
What is vital capacity VC?Amount exhaled after deep inspiration
How do you calculate VC?VC = IRV + TV + ERV
What does VC generally indicate?Capability to provide breath support
What is VC important for?Speech
What is total lung capacity TLC?Total of all lung volumes
How do you calculate TLC?TLC = IRV + TV + ERV + RV
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Question Answer
Vegetative (survival) breathing isAutonomic
When is there greater muscle involvement in vegetative breathing?When more air is required, or a bronchi is obstructed to compensate for reduced TV
Expiration isPassive
Relaxation of the diaphragmPrecedes intercostal relaxation
Describe the phases of the respiratory cycle40% inspiratory phase, 60% expiratory phase
How much of the VC is used during vegetative breathing?50%
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Question Answer
What is utilised in phonation to take a deeper breath?IRV
When would ERV be utilised?If you need to sustain phonation until breath runs out
What happens when there's more air inspired?There's a greater pressure and the external intercostals check passive collapse
Describe the phases of the respiratory cycle for vocal breathing?10% inspiratory phase, 90% expiratory phase
Why does conversational speech use less IRV and ERV?Frequent, rapid inspirations
How much VC is used in conversational speech?60%
When is additional IRV utilised during conversational speech?When shouting/screaming
When is additional ERV utilised during conversational speech?When trying to 'hold the floor'
When is additional IRV and ERV utilised during conversational speech?When reading and singing
Which muscles are used for sudden emphasis?Abdominals
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