Respiratory Sys

hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2017-05-13 05:26

Section 1

Question Answer
how is the respiratory system divided structurallyupper: superior to larynx, lower: inferior to larynx
conducting zonestructures that conduct air into the lungs. warm, filter, moisten air
respiratory zonesite of gas exchange. respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli
what do the conchae and meatuses of the nose doincrease surface area and prevent dehydration
olfactory epicontains olfactory receptors, sup nasal conchae
respiratory epiinf to olfactory epi, pseudostratified ciliated columnar, secretes mucous to moisten air and trap particles, cilia move trapped particles to be removed
nasopharynx containspost of nasal cavity is soft palete, paryngeal tonsils
oropharynx containshyoid bone section of soft palete, palatine and lingual tonsils
laryngopharynx containshyoid for esophagus/larynx
larynxconnects laryngopharynx to tranchea, 9 pieces of cartilage, connected via intrinsic muscles, extrinsic muscles connect cartilages to throat structures
thyroid cartilageforms ant wall of larynx, larger in males due to testosterone, connected to hyoid bone by thyrohyoid membrane
epiglottiselastic cartilage, inf portion connected to rim of thyroid cartilage, sup portion free, covers glottis when swallowing
vestibular foldsfalse vocal cords, sup, rima vestibuli: space between vestibular folds
vocal foldstrue vocal cords, inf, rima glottidis: space between
trachealis musclewithin the open portion of c shaped cartilages
tracheotomydone when obstruction is above the larynx, incision below cricoid cartilage
primary bronchiright and left bronchus, one to each lung, right is more vertical and shorter, incomplete rings of cartilage
secondary bronchilobar chonchi, split into each lobe
tertiary bronchisegmental bronchi, further divide within each lobe
bronchioleslittle to no cartilage, thick sm
terminal bronchiolesrepresent the end of conducting zone
lungssurrounded by pleural membrane, parietal pleura: outer, visceral pleura: inner
pleural cavityreduces friction

Section 2

Question Answer
oblique fissure in lungsboth lungs
horizontal fissure in lungsonly in the right lung
bronchopulmonary segmentportion of lung tissue that each tertiary bronchus supplies
type 1 alveolar cellssimple squamous epi, form walls of alveolar sac
type 2 alveolar cellsfewer, secrete pulmonary surfactant
respiratory centerarea where nerve impulses are sent to breathing muscles from medulla oblongata and pons
medullary respiratory centerdorsal resp group: normal breathing, diaphragm and ext intercostals. ventral resp group: forceful expiration, accessory muscles
pontine respiratory centersend impulses to the dorsal respiratory group, breathing by modifying basic breathing rhythm
respiratory diverticulumwhere the tracheal bud splits into bronchiole buds
endodermepi of trachea, bronchi, alveoli
mesodermCT, cartilage, sm
week 6-16all major elements form except resp bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli. fetuses wont survive at this time
week 16-26respiratory bronchiles and alveolar ducts and primitive alveoli form. fetuses born here can survive with NICU
week 26-birthmore alveoli develop. pulmonary surfactant levels rise during weeks 26-28, by week 30 mature alveoli develop