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Respiratory Syndromes

Updated 2007-03-12 07:43


Upper Respiratory Tract Syndromes: between nose/mouth and bronchi
Rhinitis: common cold symptoms caused by virus or allergic reaction
Conjunctivitis: inflammation of the conjunctivae of the eye
Pharyngitis: inflammation of throat behind the soft palate
Otitis media: inflammation of the middle ear epithelium with presence of fluid
Sinusitis: inflammation of one or more sinus air spaces of facial bones
Epiglottitis: inflammation of mucous membrane of epiglottis - potential medical emergency!
Laryngitis: inflammation of larynx and vocal cords
Laryngotracheobronchitis (Croup): severe infection of respiratory tract, especially in children, with possible airway obstruction at the level of the larynx of bronchi due to inflammatory exudate
Bronchitis: infection of bronchi of the lungs
Lower Respiratory Tract Syndromes: between bronchioles and alveoli
Bronchiolitis: inflammation of bronchioles
Pneumonia (typical): inflammation of lung in which alveoli become filled with pus so that air is excluded and the lung becomes solid ('consolidated')
Pneumonia (atypical): insidious onset of pulmonary inflammation

Signs and symptoms

SyndromeSigns and symptoms
Rhinitisrhinorrhea, nasal congestion, dry cough
Conjunctivitisred, itchy, teary irritated eyes ("pink-eye")
Pharyngitissore throat, fever, chills, myalgias, malaise
Otitis mediaear pain, pulling at ear, fever, purulent rhinorrhea, HA, nasal congestion
Sinusitisfacial/tooth pain, fever rhinorrhea, HA, nasal congestion, bad breath
Epiglottitissore throat, fever, dysphagia, dysphonia
Laryngitishoarseness or loss of voice, no fever, red/edematous larynx
Laryngotracheobronchitis (Croup)URI followed by abrupt onset of respiratory distress, stridor, subglottal swelling, fever, 'seal's bark' cough
Bronchitiscough, variable fever, sputum production (coarse, bubbling rhonchi)
Bronchiolitiscoryza, cough progress to wheezing in 1-7 days; grunting and flaring, apnea, cyanosis, variable course
Pneumonia (typical)acute onset, high spiking fever, chills, productive cough, pleuritic chest pain, high WBCs, pulmonary infiltrate, pulmonary consolidation
Pneumonia (atypical)gradual onset, low grade fever, non-productive cough, interstitial infiltrates but no consolidation; granulomsa on CXR may indicate tuberculosis, fungi, or non-infections process (sarcoid/pneumoconioses)


Rhinitisrhinovirus, (human coronavirus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, parainfluenza, influenza, RSV)
Conjunctivitisadenovirus, (HSV1, othe rviral, bacterial causes (less common)
Pharyngitiss. pyogenes, (adenovirus, parainfluenza, influenza, coxsackie a or b virus, HSV, EBV, corynebacterium diphtheriae, n. gonorrhea, mycoplasma sp, chlamydia pneumoniae)
Otitis medias. pneumoniae, (h. influenzae, moraxella caterrhalis, s. pyogenes)
Sinusitiss. pneumoniae, (h. influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis, stapholococcus aureus, anaerobes)
Epiglottitish. influenzae type b
Laryngitisparainfluenza (influenza, adenovirus, RSV, rhinovirus, coronavirus, echovirus)
Laryngotracheobronchitis (Croup)parainfluenza
Bronchitis, viral (80%)parainfluenza, (influenza, RSV, adenovirus, measles)
Bronchitis, bacterial (20%)bordatella pertussis, haemophilus influenzae, m. pneumoniae, chlamydia pneumoniae
BronchiolitisRSV (especially in kids under 4), (other viruses)
Pneumonia (typical), community acquired (CAP)streptococcus pneumoniae, h. influenzae type b, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic bacteria, moraxella catarrhalis
Pneumonia (typical), nosocomialklebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, legionella pneumophila, (enterobacter, acinetobacter, serratia, e. coli, proteus, morganella, providencia)
Pneumonia (atypical)mycoplasma pneumoniae, (legionella pneumonia, coxiella burnetti, chlamydia pneumoniae, chlamydia psittaci, other viral and fungal)
Pneumonia (atypical), w/ granulomasmycobacterium tuberculosis, fungal infections

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