Respiratory Sensors

aw15628's version from 2017-01-17 08:55


Question Answer
Central chemoreceptorsLocated in the ventral medulla; Respond to changes in pH [H+] of brain ECF,CSF, insensitive to hypoxia
Peripheral chemoreceptorsAortic/ Carotid bodies; Respond to changes in arterial PO2, pH and PCO2
Lung stretch receptors (mechanoreceptors)Within smooth muscles of walls of airways; Lung inflation will increase frequency of impulses in vagal afferents - this will prolong expiration and inhibit inspiration as well as decrease breathing rate. Hering-Breuer reflex. Important in adults during exercise
Irritant receptorsBetween airway epithalial cells; Smoke, gases, dust and cold air stimulate these vagal afferents - stimulates bronchoconstriction and increased breathing frequency (hyperpnoea)
Juxtacapillary (J) recveptorsWithin alveolar walls; Mediate rapid shallow breathing and dypsnoea associated with pulmonary oedema
Upper airway irritant receptorsMucosa of upper airways; Mediate protective reflexes - sneezing and coughing
Joint and muscle receptorsJoints and muscles; Movement of limbs during exercise may stimulate ventilation via these receptors
Respiratory muscle spindlesSkeletal muscles of the respiratory pump; Monitor length of muscle fibres and may be involved in the sensation of breathlessness and increased respiratory efforts due to airway obstruction.
Arterial baroreceptorsAortic arch and carotid sinus; Severe hypotension results in hyperventilation. Severe acute hypertension in animal studies is associated with hypoventilation and apnoea