Respiratory Failure

benryan95's version from 2016-01-12 17:35

Section 1

Question Answer
What is Respiratory Failure?Inadequate gas exchange, resulting in hypoxia PaO2<8kPa
What is the criteria for type 1 respiratory failure, and what is the primary cause?Hypoxia (PaO2 <8kPa) with a normal or low PaCO2, V/Q mismatch
Name 7 causes of type 1 respiratory failure?Pneumonia, Pulmonary Oedema, PE, Asthma, Emphysema, Pulmonary Fibrosis, ARDS
What is the criteria for type 2 respiratory failure, and what is the primary cause?Hypoxia with hypercapnia (PaCO2>6kPa), caused by alveolar hypoventilation with or without V/Q mismatch
Name 5 pulmonary causes of type 2 respiratory failureAsthma, COPD, pnuemonia, end stage pulmonary fibrosis, obstructive sleep apnoea
Name 3 causes related to reduced respiratory drive that cause type 2 respiratory failuresedative drugs, CNS tumour or CNS trauma
Name 5 neuromuscular causes of type 2 respiratory failureCervical cord lesion, diaphragmatic paralysis, poliomyelitis, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barre syndrome
Name 2 causes related to thoracic wall disease that cause type 2 respiratory failureFlail chest, kyphoscoliosis

Section 2

Question Answer
What are 5 clinical features of short-term hypoxia?Dyspnoea, restlessness, agitation, confusion, central cyanosis
What are 3 clinical features of long-term hypoxia?Polycythaemia, pulmonary hypertension, cor pulmonale
What are 9 clinical features of hypercapnia?Headache, peripheral vasodilatation, tachycardia, bounding pulse, tremor/flap, papilloedema, confusion, drowsiness, coma
What are 4 blood tests important in respiratory failure?FBC, U&E, CRP, ABG
How should type 1 respiratory failure be treated?Treat underlying cause, oxygen (35-60%) by facemask to correct hypoxia, assisted ventilation if PaO2 <8kPa despite 60% O2
How should type 2 respiratory failure be treated?treat underlying cause, controlled oxygen therapy (start at 24%), recheck ABG after 20 minutes, NIPPV if PaCO2 has risen by 1.5 and still hypoxic, consider intubation and ventilation if this fails

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