Respiratory drugsz

olola's version from 2016-11-07 23:40


Question Answer
respiratory drug that has the side effect of blindness in premature infantsOxygen if given in excess (>40%) for a long time
respiratory drug used as an emergency drug for syncopeAromatic ammonia spirit- ammonium hydroxide and carbonate in alcohol
respiratory drug used in ventilation depressionDoxapram- directly stimulates CNS, but rarely used due to side effects
bronchial asthma affects _________% of the population with ____deaths annually>10%, >5000
mediators that can trigger bronchospasmHistamine, Adenosine, Leukotrienes, Parasympathetic activation (Ach-Muscarinic-R), Calcium
why is Isopreterenol not a drug of choice to treat asthma?nonselective Beta agonist with significant cardiac side effects. Should use Epi instead! (a nonselective alpha and beta agonist)
short-acting B2-agonistsAlbuterol, Metaproternol, Levalbuterol, Pirbuterol
long-acting B2-agonists (>12 hours)Salmeterol, Formeterol- good for CHRONIC asthma but increased risk of tachycardia (fast tolerance)
mechanism of action of Corticosteroids for moderate-severe asthmainhibit phospholipase A2, inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis and suppress eosinophilic recrutiment
taking too much of this drug can predispose one to asthma / aggravate asthmaNSAIDs, b/c they inhibit COX so arachinodic acid gets funneled to leukotriene pathway > slow reacting substances of anaphylaxis (SRSA)
side effect that may occur with prolonged inhalation of Corticosteroidsoropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush)
oral preparations of corticosteroidsprednisone, dexamethasone, prednisolone (Orapred)
this respiratory drug is only effective as a prophylatic agent, NOT a treatment for asthmaCromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, metered doses of intra-nasally, not absorbed orally, no intrinsic bronchodilator/anthistamine/antiinflammatory action
IV treatment for COPDTheophylline, a methylxanthine, when complexed with ethylenediamine, forms aminophylline
anticholinergic used to treat long-term management of COPD especially for poorly controlled asthma and during B-2 agonist intoleranceIpratropium (Atrovent)- has side effects of xerostomia, unpleasant taste, tachycardia
Combivent =Ipratropium (anitcholinergic) + Albuterol (shortacting B2 agonist)
Advair =Fluticasone (inhaled corticosteroid) + Salmeterol (longacting B2 agonist)
leukotriene pathway inhibitor that blocks LTD4 receptorMontelukast (Singular)- selectively orally active, Zafirilukast (Accolate)- has several drug interactions b/c inhibits p450
5-lipooxygenase inhibitor, preventing the overall synthesis of leukotrienesZileuton (Zyflo)
IgE blocker taken subcutaneously for poorly controlled asthma, minimal age to take is 12 yearsOmalizumab (Xolair)- "asthma vaccine"
dangerous herbal remedy that has CNS and CVS stimulant propertiesEphedra (Ma huang)
more potent than codeine, with high addition liabilityhydrocodone (3x more potent)
best OTC anti-tussive drugsBenzonatate (Tessalon perles), Dextromethorphan (Delxym) -no drrowsiness involved unlike opioids, and less addiction liability
antitussive drug with minimal addiction liability and analgesiaNoscapine
nasal decongestant applied topically, has high addiction potential and with rebound effectsAlpha-adrenergic drugs (Phenylephrine, Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine)
intranasal steroidsbeclomethasone, triamcinolone, fluticasone- have reduced systemic effects, only local candidiasis of mouth and pharynx reported
expectorantspotassium iodide, ammonium chloride, guaifenesin, syrup of ipecac
side effect of syrup of ipecac, an expectorantemesis
side effect of potassium iodide, an expectorantthyroid function affected
side effect of ammonium chloride, an expectorantmetabolic acidosis
mucolytic agent that reduces viscosity of RPT secretions by ______Acetylcysteine; cleaving SH group in disulfide bonds
Zafiriulkast (LTD4 receptor antagonist) interacts with several drugs via inhibition of p450. Examples?aspirin increases its blood levels, erythromycin decreases blood levels

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