fexezani's version from 2015-08-19 18:43

Section 1

Question Answer
most resp diseases transmitted insalivary droplets but can also enter via contact with contaminated objects
viruses establush nfections in thenose and throat but osmeitmes can start at the alveoli or eye if by contact
rhinoviruses bleong topicorno- family
rhino structurenon-enveloped, icosahedral capsids covering ss+RNA and the naked RNA is infectious and replicates as that of poliovirus
rhino clinicial features and diagnosis2-3 day incubation / nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, headache, cough /possible fever / no tests
pathogenesisinflammation and abundant exudation from upper resp tract / cytopathology is usually minimal but nose becomes egored with blood (hyperemic) and edematous due to bradykinin
prophylaxias and treatmentnone due to high degree of variation
complicatonsnoe except in patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma which may get exacerbated

Section 2

Question Answer
coronaviruses structurepleomorphic and have club-shaped spike proteins in surface of membrane envelope
genome isss+RNA
strucutral protein genes at3' end and nonstructural at 5' end
RNA iscapped and polyadenylated and infectious
human corona canreplicate exclusively in humans causing upper resp infections / spread by aerosol and contact
SARS and MERSare in animal reservoirs (bats) and cause atypical pneumonia
clinical features and diagnosishuman corona similiar to rhino but no fever and cough/sore throat is rare . no tests for human corona / SARS and MERS causes extensive pneumonia and tested by RT-PCR, ELISA, and viral culture
pathogenesisonly upper resp tract suports human corona replication->cell destruction followed by infalmmation and exudation
prophylaxis and treatmentno vaccines or antivirals

Section 3

Question Answer
adenovirus virions arenon-enveloped, icosahedral particles filled with linear dsDNA
clinical features and diagnosisimportant caus eof colds but also cause wide range of other illnesses often with involvement of the eye / diagnosis by IF on infected cells, virus isolaition, oe observation of cytopathic effect on human cell lines
pathogenesisusualyl benign / persistence possible in tonsils
prophylaxis and treatmentoral, encapsulated live-attenuated vaccine used by military but not widespread due to variety of circulating serotypes
complicationspossible but infrequent infection of lower resp tract leading to pneumonia

Section 4

Question Answer
influenza belongs toorthomyxo- family and has envelope protecting 8 segments of -RNA
influenza structureHA and NA on surface
influenza strainsA, B, and C based on the 16 HA serotypes and the 9 NA serotypes
clinical features and diagnosisA and B are similar->runny noses maybe, incubationf or 2-3 days, shivering, malaise, headache, fever of 39, mylagia, backache, and often sore throat / IF, ELISA, and clinical picture
pathogenesisinfection involves upper resp tract but can spread to lower and cause pneumonia / viral multiplication causes cilia destruction and impairs protection of resp system / largely result of immune response against virus and is mediated by IL-6, TNF, and interferon
vaccinesboth include 3 serotypes and are updated annualy / most common is inactivated but also there is nasal attenuated vaccine
vaccines induceimmune response against HA
rimantidine and amantidinetarget M2 of strain A / most times is resistd
zanamivir and oseltamivirtarget NA of A and B / may reduce symptoms by .5 days if treated fast / zanamavir slightly more efficacious and produces fewer side effects
all drugs should be used withcaution due to limited effectiveness, potential side effects, and rapid selection of resistant strains
complicationssecondary bacterial infections, particularily with S. aureus / also cna have Reye's syndrome which is associated with influena B in children and is often fatal

Section 5

Question Answer
inactivated vaccine contraindicationsallergy to eggs or other vaccine components, patients with acute febrile illness
group 1 inactivated indications>50, prexisiting disorders, children/adolescents on aspirin therapy, women after first trimester of pregnancy
group 2 inactivated indicationshealth/nursing home workers, children under 24 months, school workers
group 3 inactivated indicationsimmunosuppressed, travelers, people working in community service, anyoen who requests vaccine
efficaicy of inactivated vaccinevariable depending on strain matching, immunocompetence, and age
flowmist vs inactivatedmore contraindications / potentially better at producing broad mucosal and systemic immunity

Section 6