baejuhyeoned's version from 2017-03-08 13:26

Section 1

Question Answer
Datarefers to any kind of information researchers obtain on the subjects, respondents or participants of the study
Dataare collected and used to answer the research question or objectives of the study
Quantitative Data are information which can be counted or expressed in numerical values
Qualitative data are descriptive information which has no numerical values
(1) Primary, (2) Secondarydata may also be classified
Primary dataare information collected directly from the subjects being studied, such as people, areas , objects.
Secondary data are information collected from other available sources like recent censuses, or data collected by large scale national or world wide surveys, such as agricultural and industry surveys, demographic and health surveys ,data of completed studies.
Questionnaire & InterviewThe two most common means of collecting primary quantitative information are
SURVEYSStudies which obtain data by interviewing people or by administering questionnaires are called
SAMPLE SURVEYSwhen the people interviewed or asked to respond to questionnaires are a representative sample of a larger population, such studies are called
SELF ADMINISTERED QUESTIONNAIREquestionnaires are distributed to the respondents who write their answers to the questions in appropriate spaces I the questionnaire may be administered individually or in a group by the researcher or by an authorized individual
(1) Documents, (2) Audiovisual materials, (3) ObservationsInterviews and questionnaires
InterviewsOccur when researchers ask one or more participants general, open-ended questions and record their answers.
(1) provide useful information when you cannot directly observe participants, (2) they permit participants to describe detailed information2 Advantages of the interview:
(1) it provides only information “filtered”, (2) may be deceptive and provide the perspective the interviewee wants the researcher to hear, (3) the presence of the researcher may affect how the interviewee responds, (4) may not be articulate, perceptive, or clear.4 Disdvantages of the interview:
(1) interviewer can observe the body language, (2) can probe for clarification of ambiguous responses, (3) effective for semi-literate respondents, (4) expected response rate is high4 ADVANTAGES OF INTERVIEW
(1) the cost in terms of money, time and personnel per respondents is high, (2) Skilled interviewer are required.DISADVANTAGES of INTERVIEW
(1) One-on-one interviews, (2) Focus group interviews, (3) Telephone interviews, (4) Electronic e-mail interviews4 types of interviews and open-ended questions on questionnaires:
One-on-one interviewsis a data-collection process in which the researcher asks questions to and records answers from only one participant in the study at a time.
Focus group interviewsthe process of collecting data through interviews with a group of people, typically four to six.
Telephone interviewsis the process of gathering data using the telephone and asking a small number of general questions.
Electronic e-mail interviewsconsist of collecting open-ended data through interviews with individuals using computer and the internet to do so.
DocumentsConsist of public and private records that qualitative researchers obtain about a site or participants in a study and they can include newspapers, minutes of meeting, personal journals, and letters.
(1) Being in the language and words of the participants, (2) Ready for analysis without the necessary transcription that is required observational or interview data.2 ADVANTAGES OF DOCUMENTS
(1) Documents are some times difficult to locate and obtain, (2) Information may not be available to the public, (3) The documents may be incomplete, inauthentic, or inaccurate, (4) handwriting may be hard to read.4 DISADVANTAGES OF DOCUMENTS
Audiovisual materialsConsist of images or sounds that researchers collect to help them understand the central phenomenon under study.
For observations and interviews, qualitative researchers use specially designed protocols.How do you record data?
Data recording protocols: Are forms designed and used by qualitative research to record information during observations and interviews.
Interview protocol Is a form designed by the researcher that contains instructions for the process of the interview, the questions to be asked, and space to take notes of responses from the interviewee.
Observational protocol Is a form designed by the researcher before data collection that is used for taking fieldnotes during an observation
ObservationsThe process of gathering open-ended, firsthand information by observing people and places at a research site.
participant observeris an observational role adopted by researchers when they take part in activities in the setting they observe.
nonparticipant observeris an observer who visit a site and records notes without becoming involved in the activities of the participants.
changing observational roleis one where researchers adapt their role to the situation.
(1) participant observer, (2) nonparticipant observer. (3) changing observational role3 Observational roles
Descriptive fieldnotesrecord a description of the events, activities, and people.
Reflective fieldnotesrecord personal thoughts that researchers have that relate to their insights, hunches, or board ideas or themes that emerge during the observation.

Section 2

Question Answer
Research designbasis for determining what data will be collected & how they will be analyzed
(1) Minimizes occurrence of error, (2) Must be determined before, (3) Will or will not compromise validity & reliability(3) A good research design:
ReliabilityConsistency, Stability, Dependability
ValidityNot only reliable but true and sound, yield true info and accurate info
(1) Non preexperimental, (2) True experimental, (3) Quasi experimentalCommonly used research designs
Non preexperimentalcollecting descriptive info
Non preexperimentalProfile, exploratory, small case studies
Non preexperimentalNot recommended for evaluation studies
Non preexperimentalPosttest only/After only design
Non preexperimentalPretest, posttest
Posttest only/after onlyOne shot survey; data collected only once
Posttest only/after onlyUsed to describe a situation/condition
Posttest only/after onlyNo baseline
Posttest only/after onlyCheap & easy to conduct
Posttest only/after onlyCannot be conclusive
Pretest-posttest designUsed when you want to know changes in characteristics
Pretest-posttest designSurvey conducted before & after
Static group comparison2 groups involved (experimental & control)
Time seriesSimilar to non experimental, it is repeated
Non equivalentIntervention introduced to experimental group but witheld from control
Posttest only control group designTo determine effect of an intervention to a group as in pretest, posttest
Posttest only control group designNo pretest conducted
True experimentalRandomly assigned to experimental
True experimentalTo achieve equality
True experimentalValidity threats are avoided
True experimentalFeasibility must be considered

Section 3

Question Answer
samplingSelecting the study population
samplingThe information collected in order to answer the objectives of a study is obtained from causes or individuals or objects
samplingIs the process of choosing a representative portion of a population or some elements in a population that will represent the entire population
samplingIt is assumed that the characteristic of the chosen elements called sample,reflect the characteristics of the entire population.
Censusrequires the study of all elements in the population
(1) population, (2) target population, (3) sampling population, (4) sampling frame, (5) sampleIn the study of sampling , it is important to distinguish the following concepts:
Populationthis refers to the total number of elements (e.g. items, objects, areas, or individuals) to be studied
Population elementthis pertains to an item, an object , an area, or an individual of which data will be taken. It is considered the unit of study, in the example , a student in a public high school is a population element
Target Population this is the population for which representative information is desired.
Sampling Populationthis is the Population from which a sample is actually drawn
Sampling frame the frame is a list of all the elements or sampling units (e.g. items, persons ) in a population, the sample is drawn from the sampling frame
Sample this refers to an individual, an element or a group of individuals or elements on which information is obtained.
Sample is drawn from a population to which research results are generalized
(1) Cheaper, (2) Faster, (3) More accurate, (4) Fewer errors in data collection, (5) Yield more comprehensive informationsThere are several advantages of studying a sample rather than the total population.
(1) Non probability sampling, (2) Probability samplingThere are two basic types of sampling:
Non probability sampling is arbitrary (non- random)and is generally subjective .data gatherers chose sample cases “ as they wish” or “ wherever they find them”
Non probability sampling is a judgmental sampling .
Non probability sampling does not provide every member of the population of equal chance of being selected
Non probability sampling probability or chance of the element to be chosen as a sample is unknown
the possibility of bias1 advantage of using non probability sampling
Accidental method In non probability sampling, the investigator selects a sample units as they become available
Purposive methodin this type of sampling , the investigator uses a specific purpose of selecting a sample
Quota samplingwhen you think you know the characteristic of the target population very well
Voluntary samplingSince the subject you expect to participate in the sample selection are the ones volunteering to constitute the sample, there is no need for you to do any selection proceses
Availability samplingThe willingness of the personas your subject to interact with you counts a lot in this non-probability sampling method
Snowball samplingSimilar to snow, expanding widely or rolling rapidly, this sampling technique does not give a specific set of samples.
Snowball samplingfor a study involving unspecified group of people.
Probability samplingis based on the concept of randon selection, a procedure that assures that all elements in the population are given an e qual chance of being selected as sample unit.
Simple random sampling : is process of selecting sample cases or subset of sample cases from a population , giving all the sampling units equal chances of being included as a sample
Simple random sampling is the simpliest and the best type of of probability sampling
Simple random sampling Uses pure chance
table of random digits is a table containing randomly arranged numbers in columns and in rows from a random start, numbers within the total number of population are drawn in a particular direction until the desired number of samples are selected.
(1) Restricted & (2) UnrestrictedTypes of random sampling
Systematic sampling For this kind of probability sampling, chance and system are the ones to determine who should compose the sample.
Stratified samplingthe group comprising the sample is chosen in a such a way that a group is liable to subdivision during the data analysis stage.
STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLINGis the process of selecting a random sample from subgroups or strata
CLUSTER SAMPLING a method of selecting a sample of groups or clusters of elements.
MULTI-STAGE SAMPLING the selection of the sample is accomplished in two or more stages.