sws42792's version from 2015-05-21 02:47

Section 1

Question Answer
ACE InhibitorsRenal damage
Alkylating agentsAbsence of digits, multiple anomalies
AminoglycosidesCN VIII toxicity
CarbamazepineFacial dysmorphism, developmental delay, neural tube defects, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia
Diethylstilbestrol (DES)Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma, congenital Mullerian anomalies
Folate antagonistsNeural tube defects
IsotretinoinMultiple severe birth defects (contraception mandatory)
LithiumEbstein anomaly (atrialization of right ventricle)
MethimazoleAplasia cutis congenita
PhenytoinFetal hydantoin syndrome - cleft palate, cardiac defects, phalanx/fingernail hypoplasia
TetracyclinesDiscolored teeth
ThalidomideLimb defects (phocomelia, micromelia - "flipper limbs")
ValproateInhibition of maternal folate absorption - neural tube defects
WarfarinBone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion, ophthalmologic abnormalities (use heparin instead, does not cross placenta)

Section 2

Question Answer
AlcoholFetal alcohol syndrome, birth defects and intellectual disability
CocaineAbnormal fetal growth and fetal addiction; placental abruption
Smoking (nicotine, CO)Low birth weight, preterm labor, placental problems, IUGR, ADHD
Iodine (lack or excess)Congenital goiter or hypothyroidism (cretinism)
Maternal diabetesCaudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia), congenital heart defects (transposition of great vessels), neural tube defects
Vitamin A (excess)Extremely high risk for spontaneous abortions and birth defects (cleft palate, cardiac)
X-raysMicrocephaly, intellectual disability (minimized by lead shielding)

Section 3

Question Answer
Sonic hedgehog genebase of limbs, patterning along anterior-posterior axis, involved in CNS development, mutation can cause holoprosencephaly
Wnt-7 geneapical ectodermal ridge, organization along dorsal-ventral axis
FGF geneapical ectodermal ridge, stimulates mitosis of underlying mesoderm, causes lengthening of limbs
Homeobox (Hox) genessegmental organization of embryo in craniocaudal direction, code for transcription factors, mutations cause appendages in wrong directions

Section 4

Question Answer
1st archMeckel cartilage (mandible, malleus, incus, shpenomandibular ligament), muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, lateral and medial pterygoids), anterior belly of digastric, tensor tympani, tensor veli palatini, CN V2 and V3 (chew), Treacher Collins syndrome
2nd archStapes, styloid process, lesser horn of hyoid, stylohyoid ligament, Muscles of facial expression (stapedius, stylohyoid, platysma, posterior belly of digastric) CN VII (facial expression)
3rd archGreat horn of hyoid, stylopharyngeus, CN IX (glossopharyngeus innervates stylopharyngeus)
4th archMost pharyngeal constrictors, cricothyroid, CN X (superior laryngeal branch)
6th archAll intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid, CN X (recurrent laryngeal branch)
1st groove/cleftExternal auditory meatus
1st pouchMiddle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells
2nd pouchPalatine tonsil
3rd pouch (dorsal)Inferior parathyroid gland
3rd pouch (ventral)Thymus
4th pouch (dorsal)Superior parathyroid gland
4th pouch (ventral)Ultimobranchial body (forms parafollicular C cells with neural crest)

Section 5