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Reproductive System

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icer215's version from 2016-08-29 05:09

Section

Question Answer
The gonadis an organ that produces gametes
In malesthey are called the testes
testesExternal structure. Responsible for producing sperm (in the seminiferous tubules to be specific) and testosterone (hormone)
In femalesthey are called ovaries
ovariesInternal structure. Responsible for storing unfertilized egg and producing estrogen (hormone)
The genitaliaare the organs of the reproductive system
The male genitalia are composed of theTestes, Penis, Glands
PenisResponsible for sexual intercourse; it also contains the urethra
GlandsInclude seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands
Seminal vesiclesattach to the vas deferens and produce fructose to sperm for energy source
Epididymisa highly convoluted duct behind the testis, along which sperm passes to the vas deferens.
Vas deferensthe duct that conveys sperm from the testicle to the urethra.
Urethrathe duct by which urine is conveyed out of the body from the bladder, and which in male vertebrates also conveys semen.
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Prostate glandproduces fluids to nourish the sperm as well
Bulbourethral glandsalso produce fluid to lubricate the urethra and neutralize pH
Ejaculatory ductEmpty into the urethra
The female genitalia are composed of theLabia majora, Bartholin’s glands, Clitoris, Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Uterus, Vagina
Labia majoraProtect external reproductive organs
Bartholin’s glandsFound near the vaginal opening & Produce mucus
ClitorisSimilar to penis in males & Sensitive to stimulation
OvariesOval-shaped glands & Produce eggs and hormones
Fallopian tubesAttached to the uterus that work to provide the passage for eggs to travel from ovaries to the uterus & Site for fertilization
UterusPear-shaped organ & Where the fetus is housed for development
VaginaA canal (also known as the birth canal) & Connects between the cervix and the outside of the body
Cervix is the lower part of the uterus in the human female reproductive system.
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MaleMostly external structures, Same openings for urine and semen, No structure/area for holding and nurturing fetus, Produce high level of testosterone, New sperms produced regularly, No menstrual cycle
FemaleMostly internal structures, Separate openings for urine and menstruation and sexual intercourse, Uterus holds and nurture the fetus, Produce high level of estrogen, Women have eggs stored in since birth (release every month after puberty), Menstrual cycle
Female Reproductive CycleMenstruation, Follicular phase, Ovulation, Luteal phase
MenstruationThe shedding of the uterus lining (endometrium) occurs with bleeding. Occurs approximately once a month during puberty and stops at menopause (and during pregnancy)
Follicular phaseBegins on the 1st day of menstrual bleeding. Development of follicles in the ovaries. The uterus lining is thick with fluids and nutrients for an embryo in case egg has been fertilized. Estrogen an progesterone levels are low.Production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) causes the growth of 3~30 follicles, which only one of these continues to grow.Follicle produces estrogen, stimulating the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge à when this surge occurs, this phase ends (which results in release of the egg).This phase lasts about 13-14 days, but varies in length
OvulationFollicle ruptures to release the egg. The egg can be fertilized up to 12 hours after this release
Luteal phasePhase after ovulation. Lasts about 14 days (if fertilization did not occur) and ends before follicular phase begins again.Corpus luteum forms from the ruptured follicle.Corpus luteum degenerates if no fertilization occurs. Progesterone level increases, thickening the endometrium and the mucus in the cervix (making it difficult for bacteria and sperm to enter the uterus). Body temperature also increases slightly until follicular phase begins. Estrogen level is high
PregnancyUsually takes about 40 weeks. The mother’s body nurtures a fetus (baby)
Pregnancy Symptoms includeNo menstrual periods, Mood swings, Breast changes, Tiredness, Nausea
ParturitionAlso known as childbirth, labor, and delivery. Delivery of newborn infant from a mother’s uterus
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Parturition InvolvesShortening and dilation of the cervix, Increased secretion of oxytocin, Dilate to about 4 inches wide
Birth of the infantHead first
Expulsion of theplacenta
LactationSecretion of milk from the mammary glands of the breast,
Loss of placenta reducesthe estrogen and progesterone level in a mother’s body causing milk secretion to occur
Lactation InvolvesMammogenesis, Lactogenesis, Galactopoiesis, Involution, Hormones
MammogenesisBreast growth
LactogenesisFunction change of the breasts
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Primary Germ LayersGerm layers are a group of cells that form during embryogenesis.
There are three primary germ layersectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm.
The ectoderm is the outermost layer. It forms the nervous system, eyes, epidermal skin layer, and the nasal/oral passage.
The mesodermis the middle layer. It forms the muscle, cardiovascular system, and the dermal skin layer.
The endodermis the innermost layer. It forms the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs. It also forms the other digestive organs such as the liver and the pancreas.
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GalactopoiesisMaintain milk production
InvolutionTermination of milk production
Hormoneslike prolactin is involved
Reproductive hormonesGnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone)
GnRHProduced in the hypothalamus. Released by pituitary where secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) is stimulated
In males FSHallows perm maturation. Binding of LH to Leydig cells stimulates testosterone secretion
In females stimulates production ofestradiol and progesterone. Progesterone stimulates the growth of uterus lining in case of pregnancy. FSH stimulates the maturation/growth of follicles. LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovary
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