Reproductive system and gametogenesis

ajv09c's version from 2015-04-30 19:48

Section 1

Question Answer
major organsgonads
male reproductive organtestes
female reproductive organovaries
the gonads producesex cells and hormones
testes producesperm and testosterone
ovaries produceova (eggs) estrogen and pro estrogen
major external structures of male reproductive systempenis and scrotum
major internal structures of male reproductive systemduct system, accessory glands, testes,
duct systemaccessory structures that form the ducts

that carries sperm from testes to external environment
duct system composed of epididymis, ductus deferens/vas deferns (sperm duct), ejaculatory duct, urethra
epididymislocated on the superior and posterolateral area of the testes,

site where immature sperm cells complete maturation
ductus deferens/vas deferenssperm duct---- along with blood vessels and nerves, they are enclosed in spermatic cord
spermatic cordconnective tissue sheath that encloses ductus deferent, connects the epididymis to ejaculatory duct at ampulla
ejaculatory ductpropels sperm through prostate gland to urethra during ejaculation
urethraruns length of the penis, common path of both the uriinary and reproductive system, has 3 parts
3 parts of the urethraprostatic, intermediate (membranouse), and spongy

Section 2

Question Answer
accessory glands produceseminal fluid that bathes sperm
accessory glands includeprostate gland, seminal glands, bulbourethral glands
prostate glandinferior to bladder,

encircles and secretes milky fluid into urethra to activate sperm
seminal glandsposterior to bladder,

joins ductus deferens to form ejaculatory duct

produces alkaline secretion containing fructose and other nutrients that supply energy to sperm cells or promotes fertilization

-produces 60% of seminal fluid
bulbourethral glandsinferior to the prostate

------produces thick, clear alkaline mucus that drains into membranous urethra

----------washes out urine during ejaculation of semen

Section 3

Question Answer
testes are gonads that producesperm and testosterone
exterior of testes covered bytunica albuginea( dense connective tissue), extends into interior to divide testis into lobules
lobules in testes containeseminiferous tubules, interstitial cells and rete testis
seminiferous tubulessite of sperm production, interstitial cells between tubules produce testosterone
rete testiscarries sperm from seminiferous tubules to epididymis

Section 4

Question Answer
external structures of female reproductive systemexternal genitalia (vulva) & the mammary gland, mons pubis, labia major, labia minora
labia minoraenclosed vestibule region

containing: clitoris, urethral orifice, vaginal orifice
labia majorahomologous to scrotum in males
mons pubisoverlies pubic symphysis


Question Answer
clitorispart of labia minor,

homologous to penis in males,

covered by prepuce of the clitoris
urethral orificepart of labia minora , part of urinary system, separate from the reproductive structures
vaginal orificepart of labia minora,

external opening that leads into the internal reproductive structures

contains hymen and greater vestibular glands
hymenthin fold of mucous membrane,

closes vaginal opening part of vaginal orifice
greater vestibular glandspart of vaginal orifice,

flanks vaginal opening produce lubricants during coitus

Section 5

Question Answer
internal structures of the female reproductive system includeligaments and organs
internal ligaments areligamentous folds of peritoneum and the ovarian ligament
ligamentous folds of the peritoneum arebroad ligaments, round ligaments, and uterosacral ligaments
broad ligaments are themesometrium and mesosalpinx
mesometriumsecures the uterus
mesosalpinxsecures the uterine tubes


Question Answer
round ligamentssecure uterus to labia majora
uterosacral ligamentssecures uterus to body wall
ovarian ligament aresuspensory ligaments and ovarian broad ligament
suspensory ligamentsanchors ovaries laterally
ovarian broad ligamentmesovarium anchors ovaries posteriorly
organs located in the pelvic region arevagina, uterus, uterine/fallopian tubes, ovaries, mammary glands


Question Answer
vagina isbirthing canal connecting vestibule to uterus
uterus located between bladder and rectum
uterine wall layers includeendometrium, myometrium, and serosa
endometrium layercomposed of a functional layer (stratum functionalism) that is formed by basal layer/stratum basalis
the functional layer is the usual site ofegg implantation and is discarded during menses


Question Answer
myometrium muscular layer of uterus
serosa protective outer layer
major structures of the uteruscervix (inferior uterus)

body (major portion of uterus)

fundus (superior uterus)
uterine/fallopian tubesdistal end closest to ovary have fimbriae- finger like projections,

ampulla is the widest longest portion,

isthmus located medially is narrow and with a thick wall---- site of egg fertilization by sperm
ovariessite of female gamete development and estrogen production, egg ejection during ovulattion


Question Answer
mammary glandsanterior to pectoral muscle, caused by estrogen production
major features of mammary glandsexternal: areola, nipple internal: lobes
areolaexternal mammary feature, pigmented area surrounding nipple
nippleexternal mammary feature, site of milk release in lactation
lobesinternal mammary feature, 15-25 lobes composed of connective and fatty tissue;;;;;;;;;lobes contain lobules containing milk producing alveoli ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; milk formed there passes through lactiferous ducts and stored in lactiferous sinus

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