Repro 1

gsafsaf's version from 2015-05-23 16:44

Urogenital dvlpmt

Question Answer
Sertoli cells secretemüllerian-inhibiting factor
Leydig cells secretetestosterone
causes the paramesonephric ducts to regress in male embryomüllerian-inhibiting factor
epididymusmesonephric ducts
vas deferensmesonephric ducts
seminal vesiclesmesonephric ducts
uterine tubesparamesonephric ducts
uterusparamesonephric ducts
cervixparamesonephric ducts
upper 1/3 vaginaparamesonephric ducts
glans penisgenital tubercle
glans clitorisgenital tubercle
ventral penisurogenital folds
labia minoraurogenital folds
scrotumurogenital swellings
labia majoraurogenital swellings
bladderurogenital sinus
urethraurogenital sinus
prostateurogenital sinus
bulbourethral glandsurogenital sinus
lower 2/3 vaginaurogenital sinus
Bartholin glandsurogenital sinus
testosterone is responsible formale internal genitalia
dihydrotestosterone is responsible formale external genitalia
dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA)not known to play a role in sexual differentiation

Genital homologs

Question Answer
Glans penisglans clitoris
corpus cavernosumvestibular bulbs
bulbourethral (Cowper) glands greater vestibular (Bartholin) glands
prostate gland urethral and paraurethral glands
ventral shaft of penislabia minora
scrotum labia majora
infundibulopelvic ligament ovaries to lateral pelvic wall
cardinal ligament cervix to side wall of pelvis
round ligament of the uterus uterine fundus to labia majora
broad ligament uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries to pelvic side wall
ovarian ligament medial pole of overy to lateral uterus
corpus spongiosumvestibular bulbs

Some general anatomy

Question Answer
Ovaries Para-aortic nodes
TestesPara-aortic nodes
Upper 2/3 vaginaExternal/Internal iliac nodes
UterusExternal/Internal iliac nodes
CervixExternal/Internal iliac nodes
ProstateExternal/Internal iliac nodes
Lower 1/3 vaginaSuperficial inguinal nodes
VulvaSuperficial inguinal nodes
ScrotumSuperficial inguinal nodes
Internal iliac nodes akaHypogastric nodes
Cardinal ligamentCervix -> pelvic side wall
Ovarian ligamentOvary to uterus
Cardinal ligamentUterine vessels
Infundibulopelvic ligamentOvary -> pelvic side wall
Infundibulopelvic ligamentOvarian vessels
Ovarian ligamentDerived from gubernaculum
Round ligamentDerived from gubernaculum
Round ligamentUterine horns (points where fallopian tubes enter uterus) -> labia major, passing thru inguinal canal
Broad ligamentUterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries -> pelvic wall

Testicular tumors

Question Answer
Fried egg cell seminoma
undescended testiclerisk for germ cell tumor
mc testicular tumor seminoma
painless homogenous testicular enlargementseminoma
good prognosisseminoma
painful, palpable mass in scrotumembryonal carcinoma
malignantembryonal carcinoma
elevated hCGembryonal carcinoma
elevated hCGchoriocarcinoma
hematogenous metastasischoriocarcinoma
appears yellowish and mutinousyolk sac tumor
Schiller-Duval bodies look like glomeruliyolk sac tumor
elevated hCGteratoma
elevated AFP in 50%teratoma
mc in older mentesticular lymphoma
mc in young children <3yo yolk sac tumor
tubular appearance embryonal carcinoma
crystals of Reinkeleydig cell tumor
produce androgensleydig cell tumor
gynecomastialeydig cell tumor
gynecomastiasertoli cell tumor
90% benignsertoli cell tumor
precocious pubertyleydig cell tumor
precocious pubertysertoli cell tumor
elevated AFPyolk sac tumor
elevated AFPteratoma
endodermal sinus structures (schiller duvall bodies)yolk sac tumor

Female Epithelial histology

Question Answer
VulvaStratified squamous (keratinized, nonkeratinized)
Labia MajoraStratified squamous (keratinized)
Labia MinoraStratified squamous (NONkeratinized)
VaginaStratified squamous (NONkeratinized)
VaginaContains gylcogen
VaginaAssctd epithelial tumors - Squamous cell CA
EctocervixStratified squamous (NONkeratinized)
EndocervixSimple columnar (mucus-secreting)
CervixSecretion undergoes cyclic changes allowing for LESS viscous mucus at time of ovulation
CervixAsstd epithelial tumors - Condyloma acuminatum, Squamous cell CA, Adenocarcinoma
UterusSimple (pseudostratified) columnar (ciliated, secretory, long tubular glands)
UterusUndergoes cyclic changes; divided into functional and basal layers
UterusAssctd epithelial tumors - Endometrial CA
Fallopian tubeSimple columnar (ciliated, secretory peg cells)
Fallopian tubeAssctd epithelial tumors - Endometrial CA
OvarySimple cuboidal
Ovaryaka germinal epithelium; transitions to peritoneum at the broad ligament of the uterus
OvaryAssctd epithelial tumors - serous, mucinous, endometroid, clear cell, Brenner (urothelial)

Ovarian Tumors 1

Question Answer
sex cord tumorsfibroma, sertoli leydig, granulosa theca
fibromaMeig's syndrome
sertoli-leydighirsutism and virilization
granulosa-thecaestrogen producing tumors
call exnergranulosa theca
germ cell tumorscystic teratoma, dysgerminoma, endometrial sinus, choriocarcinoma
struma ovariihyperthyrodism
fried egg appearancedysgerminoma
Schuller Devall bodiesendometrial sinus
does not respond to chemotherapychoriocarcinoma
fetal tissuecystic teratoma
yolk sacendometrial sinus
bladder like epitheliummBrenner tumor
Surface epithelium tumorsendometrioid, brenner's cystadenoma, cystadenocarcinomas, cystadenoma, mucinous cystadenocarcinomas
bilateral germ cell tumorsserous tumors
psammona bodiescystadenocarcinomas

Ovarian Tumors 2

Question Answer
Clear CellEpithelial
TeratomaGerm Cell
DysgerminomaGerm Cell
Yolk sacGerm Cell
ChoriocarcinomaGerm Cell
GranulosaSex Cord-Stromal
Sertoli-LeydigSex Cord-Stromal
FibromaSex Cord-Stromal
ThecomaSex Cord-Stromal
Teens-early 20sGerm Cell
All agesSex Cord-Stromal
Bilateral mostlyEpithelial
Unilateral mostlyGerm cell
Unilateral mostlySex Cord-Stromal
Serous cystadenomaBenign
Mucinous cystadenomaBenign
Mature teratomaBenign
Serous cystadenocarcinomaMalignant
Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma Malignant
Endometroid Malignant
Clear CellMalignant
Immature teratomaMalignant
Yolk sacMalignant
Granulosa Malignant
Bad PrognosisEpithelial
Excellent PrognosisGerm Cell
Good PrognosisSex Cord-Stromal

Histology/Labs for Gonadal Tumors

Question Answer
Psmamomma bodiesSerous tumor
Call-Exner bodies (Rosettes of cells around a central a-eosinophillic lumen)Granulosa cell tumor
Schiller-Duval bodies (Central vessel surrounded by tumor cells, in a cystic space lined by tumor cells)Yolk sac tumor
Fried Egg Cells Dysgerminoma
Signet ring cells Krukenberg Tumors - metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma
Estrogen producingGranulosa cell tumor
Precocious puberty or postmenopausal bleedingGranulosa cell tumor
Estrogen producingThecoma
Precocious puberty or postmenopausal bleedingThecoma
Androgen producingSertoli-Leydig tumor
VirilizationSertoli-Leydig tumor
Fallopian tube-like epitheliumSerous tumor
Contains urinary tract-like epitheliumeBrenner tumor
Historically assetd w pseudomyxoma peritonea - but might actually be from appendixMucinous tumor
Increased AFPYolk sac tumor

Complete vs. Partial Mole

Question Answer
+ fetal partsPartial
no fetal partsComplete
+ Chorionic villiPartial
+ Chorionic villiComplete
Normal size uterus or < datesPartial
Uterus size > than normalComplete
+ hCGPartial
3-5% risk of invasive molePartial
15-20% of invasive moleComplete
0% risk choriocarcinomaPartial
2.5% risk choriocarcinomaComplete
"Clusters of grapes"Complete
"Snowstorm" on ultrasoundComplete
Usually enucleated egg + single sperm (subsequently duplicates paternal DNA)Complete
2 Sperm + 1 eggPartial