Renal System II

taylormaloney's version from 2016-03-26 04:05

Section 1

Question Answer
What are the three primary differences between Blood Capillaries and Glomerular Capillaries?More Surface area in G-ular, thinner filtration membranes, higher blood pressure.
Define GFRGlomerular filtration rate.
Do men or women have a higher GFR?Men at 125 mL/min- women 105 mL/min.
When is GFR stable?When MAP ranges from 80-180 mmHg.
What is GFR regulated by?Blood flow through Glomerulus, and amount of glomerular surface area for filtration.

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the effect of Aldosterone in Renal System?Promotes reabsorption of Na+ and Cl+, secretion of K+ in principle cells of collection ducts.
What is the effect of ADH in Renal System?Increases water permeability of principle cells and reabsorption of water in collecting ducts.
What is the effect of Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in the Renal System?Inhibits reabsorption of water and sodium in PCT and collecting ducts. Suppresses secretion of ADH, Aldosterone. Increases natriuresis and diuresis.
What is normally found in urine analysis?Creatinine, Urea, K+, Cl, Ca2+, Uric Acid.
What is abnormal when found in urine analysis?Glucose, Protein, RBCs, Ketone Bodies.
What suggests poor renal function with a blood test?High levels of blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine.
Define Hemodialysis.Patients blood is filtered to remove wastes and excess electrolytes and fluid.

Section 3

Question Answer
What is the first 'stop' of urine production?PCT
What is the 2nd stop?Loop of Henle
What is the 3rd stop?DCT
What is the 4th stop?Collecting Duct
What is the 5th stop?Minor Calyx
What is the 6th stop?Major Calyx
What is the 7th stop?Renal Pelvis
What is the 8th stop?Ureter
What is the 9th stop?Urinary Bladder
What is the final stop for urine production?Urethra.

Section 4

Question Answer
What is the Micturition Reflex?Body's response to voiding fluids- urination.
What are the three steps of Micturition?Bladder Storage, Stretch Receptors send nerve impulses, Detrusor muscle contracts- (int then ext urinary sphincters relax).
What are the results of Chronic Renal Disease?Decrease in GFR, Abnormally high creatinine and drop in EPO.
What are two possible causes of Chronic Renal Disease?High blood pressure, Diabetes.
What is the qualifying factor for Renal Failure?A GFR of less than 15mL/minute.
How is Renal Failure treated?Kidney Transplant/Hemodialysis.
What are the affects of Exercise on the Renal System?Increase in Blood Volume and Norepinephrine, drop in GFR.

Section 5

Question Answer
What are the three main factors for acid-base balance of the human body?Hydrogen, Respiratory System, Renal System.
How does exhalation via the respiratory system affect the acid-base balance?Exhalation of CO2 decreases acidity.
How does the renal system affect the acid base balance?Hydrogen ions are secreted in PCT and collecting ducts,