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Renal Facts

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zwinthrop's version from 2015-05-11 03:04

Casts

Question Answer
RBC castsGlomerulonephritis, malignant hypertension.
WBC castsTubulointerstitial inflammation, acute pyelonephritis, transplant rejection.
Fatty casts (“oval fat bodies”)Nephrotic syndrome.
Granular (“muddy brown”) castsAcute tubular necrosis.
Waxy castsEnd-stage renal disease/chronic renal failure.
Hyaline castsNonspecific, can be a normal finding, often seen in concentrated urine samples.
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Equations

 

Question Answer
Creatinine Clearance[(140 – age) x weight (kg)]/[plasma creatinine x 72] (x0.85 if female)
GFRKf x NFP
GFR inulin[Urinar [inulin] x Volume of urine] / plasma [inulin]
Filtration Fraction (FF)GFR/RPF
Fractional Excretion (FE)FEx = [Urinary [x] x Volume of urine] / [plasm a[x] x GFR] ([UV]/[PxGFR])
Clearance of XUV/P
Metabolic acidosis compensationExpected pCO2 = 1.5 (HCO3-) + 8 ± 2
Metabolic alkalosis compensatonExpected pCO2 = 40 + 0.7(HCO3-24)
Respiratory acidosis compensationACUTE: Expected HCO3 = 24 + 0.1(pCO2 – 40) CHRONIC: Expected HCO3 = 24 + 0.35(pCO2 – 40)
Respiratory alkalosis compensationACUTE: Expected HCO3 = 24 – 0.2(40-pCO2) CHRONIC: Expected HCO3 = 24 – 0.4(40-pCO2)
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