Renal Anatomy & Ailments

alkathryn's version from 2016-07-30 19:36


Question Answer
CortexOuter shell, contains glomeruli
Medullapyramids, papillae
Kidney functionsexcrete urine, influence BP, electrolyte balance, detox
Ureter functioncollect and transport urine to bladder by peristalsis and gravity
Urinary bladder functionstores urine until voided
Urethra functionpassageway for urine
Loop of Henle is in theRenal Tubule
Nephron is thefunctional unit of the kidney
Afferent arterioleblood ENTERING from the renal artery
Efferent arterioleblood EXITING
Glomerulus is inrenal corpuscle
renal corpuscle is inrenal cortex
JGA akaJuxtaglomerular apparatus
JGA functionhelps to regulate blood pressure and rate of blood filtered by kidneys
Renal artery supplies bloodTo the kidney (afferent - entering)
Renal vein supplies bloodAway from the kidney (efferent - exiting)
Urine Volume*1200 to 1500 cc/day
Urine formation depends onadequate blood flow to the kidneys
Glomerular filtration is thefiltration of filtrate through wall of glomerulus into bowman's capsule by passive transport
GF works bypassive transport
Filtrateall materials present in blood except formed elements and prteins
Normal GFR*120-125 ml/min
Tubular reabsorption isfiltrate passes through renal tubules
99% is reabsorbed into blood byactive and passive transport
1% willexit the body as urine or filtrated stuff
tubular secretion helps controlblood pH
tubular secretion acts byactive transport
tubular secretion issubstances secreted out of blood by active transport and added to filtrate
ectopic kidneysmay cause obstruction to urinary flow - found in pelvic area
horseshoe kidneycongenital malformation, fusion of upper and lower poles
horseshoe ratios90% lower, 10% upper
polycystic kidneyshereditary, tubules fail to fuse with collecting ducts during development
polycystic kidney results inenlarged kidneys, leads to renal failure
renal hypoplasiakidneys fail to develop to normal size, very rare, usually affects one kidney
if it flows, it'shydronephrosis
if it doesn't flow, it'sobstructed
Hydronephrosis rphxMAG3 with Lasix
Hydronephrosis isdilation of renal pelvis due to obstruction of urinary flow
Hydronephrosis caused bykidney stones, pregnancy, prostate Ca, tumors, VUR
Nephrolithiasis is a kidney stone
Why would we NOT use contrast on a renal CT?Kidney stones are calcium, and would show up white
Nephrolithiasis can form whereany level in the urinary tract, common with hypercalcemia
Pyelonephritis isinflammation of kidney and renal pelvis
Pyelonephritis is caused bybaterial infection from the bladder
Pyelonephritis txantibiotics
Acute Renal Failuresudden decrease in renal function
Acute Renal Failure results inazotemia (toxic urea in blood), increased creatinine, decreased urine output
Diminished renal reserveGFR 50% normal
Renal insuffieciencyGFR 20-50% normal
Renal failureGFR <20-25% normal
ESRFGFR <5% of normal
Acute Tubular Necrosisdamage to the renal tubular cells
Acute Tubular Necrosis results inacute renal failure
Acute Tubular Necrosis due toischemia to kidney or toxic materials exposure
Toxic ATN caused bymedications
Ischemia ATN caused byRAS or shock
Renal cell carcinoma is the most commonKIDNEY neoplasm
Bladder Cancer is the most commonURINARY TRACT neoplasm