Real Bio Exam 2 Study Guide

michelleburkee2's version from 2015-09-16 02:50

Section 1

Question Answer
the smallest unit of an element that retains all of the chemical properties of that elementdefinition of an atom
definition of an atomthe smallest unit of an element that retains all the chemical properties of that element
definition of an elementsubstances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substancesdefinition of an element
what is all matter made of?elements
how many elements occur in nature?92
what three subatomic particles make up an atom?proton, neutron, and electron
what is the charge of a proton?positive
what is the charge of a neutron?uncharged
what is the charge of an electron?negative
where is the proton located?in the nucleus
where is the neutron located?in the nucleus
where is the electron located?orbiting around the nucleus
what is the charge of an atom?neutral
why is the charge of an atom neutral?because there is an equal amount of protons and electrons
what does the atomic number represent?the number of protons (and electrons)
True or false: The atomic number tells the number of neutrons and protons.false
what does the atomic weight represent?the sum of protons and neutrons
true of false: the atomic weight tells the number of protons and neutrons.true
definition of an isotopeatoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutronsdefinition of an isotope
what changes in an isotope?the atomic weight due to a increase/ decrease number of neturons
T/F the atomic weight changes in an isotopeT
T/F the atomic number changes in an isotopeF
isotopes can be radioactive T/FT
defintion of a radioactive isotopeisotopes that spontaneously break apart, forming different atoms and releasing energy
Are radioactive isotopes stable or unstable?unstable
how can radioactive isotopes be used efficenty?for archeological research and in DNA and protein research
how can radioactive isotopes be dangerous?some release particles w/ enough energy that they can damage DNA (ex. UV rays)
what are distributed in shells around an atom?electrons
what are the strongest bonds?covalent bonds
monomer of carbohydratemonosacharide
monomer of proteinamino acid
monomer of lipidglycerol and fatty acids
monomer of nucleic acidnucleotide
the basic unit of lifethe cell
the six characteristics of lifereproduce, grow, acquire and use energy, activley maintain organized complexity, perceive and respond to stimuli, and have the capacity to evolve as a species.
phototropismplants grow towards light
how does evolution occurchanges in DNA within populations occurs over the period of generations
how do mutations occurwhen changes in genes are copied or from DNA damage
how can mutations be inheritedif they occur in the sperm or egg
the four effects of mutationsno effect, positive effect, death, or a decrease in an organisms ability to function
adaptationsomething that aids in an organism's ability to survive and reproduce
the smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of an elementatom
molecules are made up of 2 or moreatoms
a combination or atomsa molecule
the smallest unit of lifecell
a group of similar cells that produce a specific functiontissue
a group of tissuesan organ
populationall the members of a species that live in the same area
speciesall organisms that are similar enough to interbreed
communitypopulations of different species that live in the same area and interact with one another
ecosystema community together with its nonliving surroundings
biosphereall of earth and the nonliving portions that support life
from least complex to most complex the levels of biological organizationatom,molecule,cell,tissue,organ,organ system, organism, population, species, community, ecosystem, biosphere

Section 2

Question Answer
what can capture and release energy that forms bonds used to combine atoms?electrons
in an atom, what provides stablility by resisiting external forces (i.e. heat, energy, electrictity)the nucleus
the identity of an atom is found in the _______nucleus
how many electrons can the first shell hold in electron shells?2
how many electrons can the second shell + hold?up to 8
what happens when energy excites an atom?it causes an electron to jump from lower to higher energy level in the electron shell
what happens when the electron falls back into its origonal shell after being excited by energy?the electron falls back into its origonal shell, releasing energy
two or more atoms from the same or different element that are held together form a ____molecule
how are atoms held together in a molecule?chemical reactions in the outermost shell
inert definitionatoms will not react with other atoms if the outermost shell is completely empty or filled
will an atom react with another atom if their outermost shell is empty or completely full?no
if Oxygen has 2 electrons in its inner shell, and 6 electrons on its second shell, how many more electrons can it hold?2 more atoms
what are the three types of chemical bonds?hydrogen, ionic, and covalent
ionic bond definitionan e- is transferred between atoms creating a + and - charge
covalent bond definitione-'s are shared between atoms
hydrogen bond definitionattraction of partial charges between polar atoms
ionic bonds form among ________ions
ions definitionatoms that have lost or gained e-'s therefore making the atom CHARGED
atoms that have gained electrons are _______ chargednegatively
atoms that have lost electrons are _________positively
oppositely charged ions that attract eachother are bound into a molecule byionic bonds
an atom that is partially full in its outermost shell can become stable by sharing e-'s w/ another atom, forming a covalent bond
2 electrons (1 from each atom) when shared form a _______ bondcovalent

Section 3

Question Answer
what type of bonds are found in most biological molecules?covalent
what type of bond rapidly dissacociates in water?ionic
what 2 different types of molecules can covalent bonds produce?nonpolar covalent or polar covalent
both atoms exert the same amount of pulling force on bond electronsnonpolar covalent bonds
electrons are not equally sharedpolar covalent bonds
what type of molecule is H2Oit is a polar covalent molecule
free radical definitiona molecule in which atoms have one or more unpaired e-'s in their outer shells
free radicals arehighly unstable and reactive. can destroy other molecules by stealing their e-'s
attractive forces between polar moleculeshydrogen bonds
polar moleculehave partially charged atoms at their ends
____ bonds form when partial opposite charges in different molecules attract each otherhydrogen
what type of bonds keep DNA molecules together?hydrogen bonds keep them together
what are the three reasons why water is so important?water is cohesive (sticks to itself), good solvent, and moderates the effects of temp change
surface tension of water is caused by what property of water?cohesion
hydrophillicwater loving
what types of molecules can water dissolve?ions or polar
hydrophobicrepels water
what types of molecules are hydrophobic?uncharged and nonpolar
the "clumping" of nonpolar moleculeshydrophobic interaction
is ice or water more dense?water
water molecules _____ during the freezing process= less dense than waterspread apart
how do ponds freeze?from the top down
acidic on pH scale0-6
neutral on pH scale7
basic on pH scale8-14
buffer def.a type of molecule that helps a solution maintain constant pH
accepts or releases H+ in response to a pH changebuffer
buffer in our body that accepts H+ if our blood becomes too acidicbicarbonate
buffering if blood in body becomes too basicrelease of H+
disaccharide definitiontwo linked monosacharides
monosacharide definitiona carbohydrate with one sugar molecule
polysacharide definitiona polymer of monosacharides
saturated or unsaturated: have double bonds C=Cunsaturated
unsaturated or saturated: have single bonds C-Csaturated

Section 4

Question Answer
What is an organic compound?a molecule containing a carbon skeleton bonded to hydrgoen atoms
Inorganic compoudscarbon dioxide and all atoms not contraining carbon
What in organic molecules determine the characteristics and chemical reactivity of the molecule?the functional groups
Which is more stable: carbon or the funtional groupscarbon
which is more likely to participate in chemical reactions: carbon or the functional groupscarbon
monomerssmall organic molecules
polymersa groups of monomers
what does dehydration synthesis do?it joins together monomers by a water molecule producing a polymer
what does hydrolysis do?it breaks apart polymers forming monomers
how is the bond of monomers broken in hydrolysis?water is broken into H and OH and is used to break the bond.
what type of bond brings together monomers to produce polymers?covalent bond
what are the four biological molecule categories?carbohydrates, lipds, proteins, and nucleic acids
what molecules are carbohydrates composed of?C,H, and O
a carbohydrate that conisists of one sugar moleculemonosacharide
two linked monosacharidesdisaccharide
a polymer of many monosacharidespolysacharide
what is the most common monosacharide in living organisms?glucose
the monosacharide found in RNAribose
the monosacharide found in DNAdeoxyribose
how are two monosacharides linked together to form a disacharide?dehydration synthesis
what kind of energy do disacharides give?short term energy
what is the energy storage molecule in plants?starch
what is the energy storage molecule in animals?glycogen
what are the four functions of a lipid?energy storage, waterproof coverings on plants and animals, cellular membranes, and hormones
the three major groups of lipids:1. fats, oils, waxes 2.phospholipids 3.steroids containing rings of carbon, hydrogen,and oxygen
what do the lipids oils and fats contain?carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
are oils saturated or unsaturated?unsaturated
definition of unsaturatedare not fully saturated because have C=C double bonds
T/F: the unsaturated triglyceride bendstrue
T/F: the saturated triglyceride bendsfalse. it stays linear
definition of saturatedfully saturated because has single C-C bonds
triglyceride that is solid at room temperaturesaturated
triglyceride that is liquid at room temperatureunsaturated
what type of lipid forms a waterproof coating?wax
what forms plasma membranes around all cells?phospholipids

Section 5

Question Answer
hydrogenationconverting oils to fat by treatment with hydrogen
waxes are _____ (saturated or unsaturated)saturated
waxes are _____ at room tempsolid
phospholipids have water soluable ______heads
phospholipids have water insoluable __________tails
what are the three things that make up a phospholipid?two fatty acids, a glycerl, and a short polar functional group
phospholipds have water soluable ____ and water insoluable ____heads; tails
hydrophobicwater fearing
hydrophillicwater loving
what is a steroid made of?four carbon rings with functional groups attached
what are proteins composed of?chains of amino acids
amino acids use this type of bond to join together and make their polymer, proteinpeptide bond
chains of amino acidspolypeptides
what type of bond is a peptide bond?covalent bond
quarternary structuremultiple protein chains linked together
tertiary structurecomplex foldings of the protein chain
secondary structurea helix
primary structurestraight line of amino acids linked together by a protein
the function of proteins is related to ___their structure
denatured loss of function of a protein due to the the loss of structure
monomers of nucleic acidsnucleotides
two different types of nucleotidesdeoxyribose and ribose
the three parts of a neucleotidea phosphate group, a 5 carbon sugar, and a nitrogen containing base
what are the function of neucleotides?they act as messangers
RNAmakes copies of DNA and is used directl in the synthesis of proteins
DNAfound in chromosomes and carries genetic info needed for protein construction
a carrier of genetic infoRNA

Section 6

Question Answer
single, simple cellsbacteria and archea
one or more complex cellseukarya
4 kingdoms in eukaryaplante,protista, animalia, and fungi
cell type of animalia 1)eukarya 1
cell type of protista(2)eukarya 2
cell type of plantae(3)eukarya 3
cell type of fungi(4)eukarya 4
cell type of archaea (1)prokaryotes 1
cell type of bacteria (2)prokaryotes 2
cell number of protista multicellular or unicellular
cell number of animalia 1multicellular 1
cell number of plantae 2multicellular 2
cell number of fungi 3multicellular 3
cell number of archaeaunicellular
cell number of bacteria 2 unicellular 2
energy acquisition of animalia heterotrophic
energy acquisition of protista (1)autotrophic or heterotrophic
energy acquisition of plantaeautotrophic
energy acquisition of fungi 2heterotrophic 2
energy acquistion of archaea 2autotrophic or heterotrophic
energy acquisition of bacteria 3autotrophic or heterotophic
the common features of all cellsall cells have DNA, organelles, and a plasma membrane
what is a plasma membrane?a thin sheet of molecules surrounding the cell
what is an organellea specialized structure that carries out specific functions
has a nucleuseukaryotes
the three differences of prokaryotes ve. eukaryoteseukaryotes have a membrane-enclosed nucleus while prokaryotes do not have nucleus, prokaryotes are smaller and less complex, and prokaryotes lack membrane bound organelles
what kind of bond holds a single water molecule together?polar covalent
Lard is a solid at room temp. what does this say about lard?it is a saturated fat
the electrical attraction between positively and negatively charged ions forms an ionic bond
which type of lipid is most important in biological molecules?phospholipid
unequal sharing of electrons between atomspolar covalent bond
how many electrons on first shell of electron shell2
how many electrons on second shell of electron shell8
inert elementhas a full /empty outer electron shell
long term energy storage for plantsstarch
a peptide bond forms between which two functional groupsa carboxyl and and amino
what type of molecule is chitin?a polysacharide

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