baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-12-13 13:59

Section 1

Question Answer
(1) Reading is a decoding process, (2) Reading is seen as a comprehension process.Definition of Reading According to Two Types
Reading is a decoding processbreaking down of written codes
Reading is seen as a comprehension processentails the use of thinking strategies to decipher the meaning of the written text.
Reading is seen as a comprehension processprocess of involving the readers into an interaction with the text and enables them to use the reading strategies in getting the meaning of the printed text. (David, 2005)
Vaughn and Linan-Thompson, 2004“Reading comprehension is the active process of constructing meaning from text.”
Text as Connected DiscourseReading is viewed as a connected discourse between the reader and the text
Text as Connected DiscourseInvolves the use of knowledge, experience and thinking in getting meaning from the print
Author, Reader, TextThere has to be connectedness among the three components:
Pre-reading, During Reading, Post readingReading Process Stages of Reading (Woods)
Pre-readingpurpose for reading is set
Pre-readingthe old knowledge is activated
Pre-readingmeaning of unfamiliar words is deciphered
During Readingreader grasps the meaning of the reading material by connecting it to his old knowledge or schema
Post Readingenables the reader to establish a connection between what they learned with what they know
Post Readingreader processes the learned information
Post Readingpredicts, guesses, evaluates and analyzes the information whether to accept or reject it
(1) Skimming, (2) Scanning, (3) Comprehensive, (4) CriticalReading Strategies and Techniques
Skimmingused to get only the main ideas of a written text in order to know what the material is all about
Scanningused to search only for specific information needed
Comprehensiverequires processing of the text for full understanding of the material
Critical involves an analysis of the claims presented in the text
(1) Previewing, (2) Overviewing, (3) Surveying3 Styles for Skimming are the following:
Previewinggiving a general view of the material in order to know what it contain
Previewingreview titles, section headings and photo captions
Overviewing to look at title, chapter or section heading
Surveyingto give the text a rundown from first section to last section
(1) Guessing from Context, (2) Paraphrasing, (3) PredictingOther Reading Strategies
Guessing from Contextuse background knowledge of the subject and ideas in the text
ParaphrasingStop at the end of a section
Predicting to make predictions about content, writing style, discourse structure, vocabulary and comprehension check
Predicting use knowledge of the subject matter, author, text type and purpose

Section 2

Question Answer
Inferringa comprehension skill which involves the use of information presented in the text and connecting it to your own knowledge.
Literal Comprehension, Inferential Comprehension, Applied ComprehensionLEVELS OF COMPREHENSION
Literal Comprehensioninvolves understanding of message directly stated in the text.
Inferential Comprehensionmeans that you as a reader was able to make inferences, draw conclusions and predicts outcome from the information implicitly stated in the text.
Applied Comprehensionhow you are able to use your experiences and schema into the written text in making an evaluation
Summarizingcondensing the text into a shorter form
Summarizinginvolves getting only the most important part of the material
SummarizingA summary is usually one third length of the original text
Paraphrasingentails the use of rewording and rephrasing of the original text
ParaphrasingIt is done to achieve clarity of the text.
ParaphrasingA paraphrased material is usually the same length as the original material.
Detailsthe facts or ideas presented by the author in the text.
RECALLING DETAILSenables you to identify the importance of each detail in the text and how it contribute to the total meaning of the materia
RECALLING DETAILSEquips you to determine the details which the author did not present (which should be presented) or presented implicitly.
INFERRING CAUSE AND EFFECTIt is important in order to establish a clear connection between and among the details in the text.
INFERRING CAUSE AND EFFECTThis interconnection would lead to a better grasp of the connection as a whole.
DRAWING CONCLUSIONSInvolves making a conclusion based on facts and evidences or ideas presented in the text.
Conclusionsare made solely taking into consideration of the details whether implicitly or explicitly stated.
DISTINGUISHING FACTS FROM OPINIONSEntails differentiating which of the author’s statement is either factual information or opinionated statement
FACTSstatements which can be proven to be either true or false
OPINIONauthor’s personal view or biases about a certain topic
DISTINGUISHING FACTS FROM OPINIONS involves evaluating the facts as to its reliability, validity and truthfulness
DISTINGUISHING FACTS FROM OPINIONSThe opinion has to be tested on its soundness, relevance and logic.
DISTINGUISHING FACTS FROM OPINIONSThese determine how you make good judgment of the reading material.

Section 3

Question Answer
Outliningprocess of organizing information gathered from reading
Outlininguses an outline-skeletal frame work- which includes the ideas separated by a specific heading and uses a numbering system
OutliningMakes it possible for you to arrange the ideas, details and examples based on importance or chronology
Topic Outline & Sentence Outline2 Types of Outlining
Topic OutlineSimply includes the specific word or phrases.
Sentence Outlineterm suggested uses a sentence or sentences
Brainstorming is a process of writing down specific topics gathered from different sources.
Brainstorminginvolves documenting and coming up with a list of topics
Brainstormingyou may find out, that not all of them will be useful for you, nonetheless, it is still a valuable tool to organize your data.
Brainstorming Listis of major points with subdetails for each
Sublistmay be a short explanation or explanation of the major points
Organizing through Graphic OrganizersThis technique in organizing information involves the use of visual symbols.
Organizing through Graphic OrganizersThese symbols represent the knowledge, concepts, thoughts or ideas, and the relationship between them.
Graphic organizersvaluable tool in coming up with a structured representation of the specific topic needed for your purpose.
Graphic organizershelps you to establish the relationship between and among the topics that you included.

Section 4

Question Answer
Topic SentenceAlso called statement of controlling purpose or controlling idea or main idea
Topic SentenceSummary of ideas in the paragraph
Topic SentenceIt should contain the topic and its controlling idea.
Major Supporting Sentence/Idea Develop the topic sentence by telling something new or different about it
Minor Supporting Sentence/IdeaGive more details about each major support sentence to make it better understood
Organization (Unity)This covers the arrangement OF THE IDEAS PRESENTED IN THE PARAGRAPH.
exclude any irrelevant information.In order to ensure unity in a paragraph , you should
Coherenceoverall unity of the ideas in a written text.
CoherenceIt is a matter of organization that that fits topic together in a meaningful manner
Coherencerefers to the way the sentences are arranged and to their relationship to one another.
(1) Transitional words and phrases that show specific kinds of relationships, (2) Transitional devices that look back or point forward, (3) Repetition of or reference to key termsThree devices that will help achieve coherence in Writing
(1) addition (2) concession: although, though, (3) time:once, etc, (4) place: in front of, (5) show a result: thus, hence, etc, (6) compare, (7) contrast, (8) explain, (9) emphasize: in fact, ofcourse, to be sure, etc., (10) summarizemost common transitional words and phrases and the relationship they show
(1) Pronoun reference, (2) Substitution, (3) EllipsisLooking-back devices
Pronoun referencemeans the relationship of a pronoun and its antecedent
Pronoun referencewhen you mention a particular item repeteadly, you use a pronoun instead of naming that item again.
Substitutionused to avoid repeating a word or group of words, use a substitute.
Ellipsiswhich is the omission of a certain word or words
(1) repeating the keyword, (2) use synonyms, (3) use derivative, (4) use general term4 ways to keep the important ideas in your reader’s mind
Parallelismplacing of like ideas in like form
Parallelismthe likeness of form makes the likeness of content easily recognizable
Language usea well-written text uses appropriate language and words in delivering the message
Language useIt has to be appropriate to the topic
Language useThe choice of the language also should be suited to the reader
Language useThis also covers the writer’s tone of writing
Subjective Tone & Objective ToneThe writer’s tone of writing are as follow:
Subjective Toneuses the writer’s personal cases and judgment
Objective Toneuses factual information and arguments
MechanicsIt is the overall characteristic of the well-written text.
MechanicsIt covers the punctuation, spelling and format.

Section 5

Question Answer
CONTEXTUAL CLUESWords, phrases and sentences that would help you to decipher the meaning of difficult words in the sentence or the selection
CONTEXTUAL CLUESRequire activation of the reader’s prior knowledge or past experiences in connection to unfamiliar word
Synonymswords having the same meaning or nearly the same meaning
(1) dashes, (2) commas, (3) parentheses, (4) reinstatementSynonyms may appear may appear in a sentence in the following ways:
Antonymsare words having opposite meaning. do not give the definition but provide an idea about the unfamiliar word
Examplesare list of illustrations which make the unfamiliar word clearer. In order to derive the meaning of the word, you have to analyze the examples given and find a common trait or characteristics.
Comparisoninvolves identifying the similarities and differences of two or more things, places or events. It is indicated with words
DerivationThis technique looks into the rootword, affixes or inflectional endings of the unfamiliar word.
Rootwordbase form of the word
Affixa letter, a sound or a syllable added to the initial (prefix) or last (suffix) part of the word to form another word.
Inflectional endingis also added to a word but only at the end.
Sense of sentence/Summary clue/ Derivationcan result in the contextual definition of a new word.
Definitionis just an explanation of the conceptual meaning of a word as defined.
Situationwhich a word is used can also be helpful in determining the meaning of that word.