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oelomar's version from 2018-11-28 18:53


Question Answer
What is primary dysmenorrhoea?Painful menstruation in which there is no underlying pathology. It affects up to 50% of menstruating women. Excessive endometrial prostaglandin production is thought to be partially responsible.
What is secondary dysmenorrhoea?Painful menstruation as a result of an underlying pathology.
What are some of the differences between primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea?Secondary dysmenorrhoea has an underlying pathology whereas primary dysmenorrhoea does not. Primary dysmenorrhoea usually appears within 1-2 years of the menarche, whereas secondary dysmenorrhoea usually develops many years after menarche. Pelvic exam is normal in primary dysmenorrhoea. The pain in primary dysmenorrhoea typically starts just before or within a few hours of the period starting. In contrast, the pain in secondary dysmenorrhoea usually starts 3-4 days before the onset of the period.
Name some causes of secondary dysmenorrhoea.Endometriosis, uterine fibroids, adenomyosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, intrauterine devices.
How is primary dysmenorrhoea treated?NSAIDs are first-line. COCPs are second line.
Is post-coital bleeding normal?Apart from the first ever intercourse, this is always abnormal.
What are the causes of post-coital bleeding?Cervical carcinoma must be excluded. Cervical ectropions, benign polyps, and invasive cervical cancer account for most cases.
What levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone are seen in primary testicular failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism)?Increased FSH, increased LH, and decreased testosterone.
What levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone are seen in secondary testicular failure (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism)?Decreased FSH, decreased LH, and decreased testosterone.