kiwigiva's version from 2015-07-31 22:54


most common cause or frecuely associated with
Question Answer
Addison’sAutoimmune (2nd – infection)
AMI Acute Myocardial Infarction - childrenKawasaki disease
Aneurysm Abdominal aorta
Aneurysm of Circle of WillisAnterior communicating a.; bitemporal hemianopsia
BlindnessDiabetic retinopathy
Blindness - preventableChlamydia
Breast MassFibrocystic Change Carcinoma is the most common is post-menopausal women
Acute Endocarditis Staph aureus
Bacterial Arthritis in young AdultsNeisseria ghonorrhea
Bacterial Meningitis – elderly Strep pneumoniae
Bacterial Meningitis – newborns E. coli
Bacterial Meningitis – toddlers (children)Hib
Bacterial Meningitis – young adults Neisseria meningitidis
bone tumor children and youngsarcoma
2nd most MMC bone tumor children and youngewing sarcoma small blue cell maligna
debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia pt Klebsiella
food poisoning Staph aureus
GI Tract Bacteroides 2. E. coli
IV drug user bacteremia / pneumonia Staph aureus
opportunistic infection of AIDS Pneumocystis carinii is most common overall
Pneumonia - Community -typical Strep pneumoniae 2. H. influenza 3. Klebsiella
Pneumonia - Hospital aquiredKlebsiella 2. Psuedomonas 3. E. coli
Pneumonia - Community - atypical Mycoplasma 2. Legionella
Subacute EndocarditisStrep Viridans
Cancer - Leukemia - <14 yoALL Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Cancer - Leukemia ->60 yo CLL Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
Cancer - Leukemia - 15 -39 yoAML Acute myeloid leukemia
Cancer - Leukemia - 40 -60 yoCML Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Cancer in Gynecologic malignancyEndometrial Carcinoma
Cancer in InfancyHemangioma
Cancer in KidsLeukemia 2.Medulloblastoma of brain, cerebellum
Cancer in MenProstate CA
Cancer in WomenLeiomyoma aka fibroids
Cancer in Women - malignant Breast CA
Cancer of the Adrenal Medulla– adultsPheochromocytoma
Cancer of the Adrenal Medulla– kids Neuroblastoma
Cancer of the Appendix Carcinoid - rare metastasis
Cancer of the Bone Metastesesfrom Breast & Prostate
Cancer of the Bone - primary - adultsMultiple Myeloma
Cancer of the Brain– ChildMedulloblastoma (cerebellum)
Cancer of the Brain–AdultAstrocytoma (including Glioblastoma Multiforme) then: mets, meningioma, Schwannoma
Cancer of the BreastInfiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma
Cancer of the Connective Tissue-benignLipoma
Cancer of the Esophagus Leiomyoma
Cancer of the Esophagus SCCA
Cancer of the Esophagus - malignantSCC (60%) > adenocarcinoma (40%)
Cancer of the Heart - adultsMetasteses
Cancer of the Heart - Primary– adults Myxoma “Ball Valve”
Cancer of the Heart - Primary– kids Rhabdomyoma
Cancer of the Liver Metastasis lung > GI
Cancer of the Liver - benign Cavernoushemangioma
Cancer of the liver - PrimaryHepatocellular CA
Cancer of the liver - Primary benignCavernous Hemangioma


Question Answer
Cancer of the MouthSCC or Mucoepidermoid CA
Cancer of the Mouth - upper lip Basal Cell CA
Cancer of the Nasal cavities SCC
Cancer of the Ovary - benignSerous cystadenoma
Cancer of the Ovary - malignantSerous cystadenocarcinoma
Cancer of the Pancreas Adeno (usually in the head)
Cancer of the Pituitary Prolactinoma (2nd – Somatotropic “Acidophilic” Adenoma)
Cancer of the Placenta - benign Cavernous hemangioma
Cancer of the Salivery Glands Pleimorphic Adenoma
Cancer of the Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma
Cancer of the Small BowelCarcinoid - frequent metastasis from ileum
Cancer of the Spleen -benignCavernous hemangioma
Cancer of the StomachGastric Adenocarcinoma; intestinal type or diffuse type
Cancer of the Testicles Seminoma
Cancer of the Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma
Cancer that invades the Female GU tract Endometrial Adenocarcinoma
Cancer; malignant lymphoma in kids Burkitt's lymphoma
Cancer; Site of metastasis Regional Lymph Nodes
Cancer; Site of metastasis (2nd most common) Liver
Cancer;Genetic Alteration p53
Cardiomyopathy Dilated (Congestive) Cardiomyopathy
Chromosomal disorder Down’s
Cirrhosis Alcohol
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency then, 11-
Congenital cardiac anomaly VSD membranous > muscular
Congenital early cyanosis Tetralogy of Fallot
Congenital GI anomaly Meckel's diverticulum
Coronary Artery thrombosis LAD
Cushings Exogenous Steroid Therapy (then, primary ACTH, Adrenal Adenoma, Ectopic ACTH)
Death in Alzheimer patienstPneumonia
Death in DiabeticsMIMyocardial infarction
Death in SLE pts. Lupus Nephropathy Type IV (Diffuse Proliferative)
Death in USA Ischemic Heart Disease
Dementia Alzheimer’s 2. Multi-Infarct Dementia
Demyelinating Disease Multiple Sclerosis
Diarrhea - children Rotavirus
Dietary Deficiency Iron
Disk herniation L4-L5
End-stage Renal Disease Diabetes
Enzyme deficiency 21 hydroxylase - 95% of CAH
Fatal genetic defect in Caucasians Cystic Fibrosis
GI obstruction Adhesions 2. Indirect inguinal hernia
Glomerulonephritis IgA nephropathy aka Berger's
Heart Murmur Mitral Valve Prolapse
Heart Valve in bacterial endocarditis Mitral
Heart Valve in bacterial endocarditis in IV drug users Tricuspid
Heart Valve involved in Rheumatic Fever Mitral > Aortic
Hereditary Bleeding Disorder Von Willebrand’s Disease
Hernia Indirect


Question Answer
Hypercalcemia hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism Primary Adenomas (followed by: hyperplasia, then carcinoma)
Hyperparathyroidism - Secondary Hypocalcemia of Chronic Renal Failure
Hypertension Essentail (95%) 2. Renal disease
Hypertension - children Renal disease; cystic disease, Wilm's tumor
Hypertension - young women Oral contraceptives
Hyperthyroidism Graves' Disease
Hypopituitarism - adults Nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma
Hypopituitarism - kids Craniopharyngioma
Hypothyroidism Hashimoto's thyroiditis
Intussusception terminal ileum into cecum
Liver Disease Alcoholic Liver Disease
Liver infection Viral Hepatitis- HVA Hepatitis A (
Location of Adult brain tumors Above Tentorium
Location of Childhood brain tumors Below Tentorium
Lysosomal Storage Disease Gaucher’s
Mental retardation Down’s or Fragile X , Fetal alcohol syndrome
Motor Neuron DiseaseALS Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Myocarditis Coxsackie B virus
Nephrotic Syndrome - adults Membranous Glomerulonephritis
Nephrotic Syndrome - kids Minimal Change Disease
Opportunistic infection in AIDSPCP pneumocystis pneumonia
Peripheral Neuropathy Diabetes
Portal Hypertension Cirrhosis
Protozoal Diarrhea Giardia
Pulmonary HTN hypertensionCOPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Renal Failure Acute tubular necrosis
Right Heart Failure Left heart failure
Secondary Hypertension Renal disease
Sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia
SIADH Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone SecretionSmall Cell Carcinoma of the Lung
Single Gene Disorder Thalassemia
Site of Diverticula Sigmoid Colon
Sites of atherosclerosis Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Surgical Emergency Acute Appendicitis
Thyroid disease Goiter
Tracheoesophageal Fistula Lower esophagustrachea / Upper esophagusblind pouch
Type of Hodkin’s Mixed Cellularity versus: lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion, nodular sclerosis
Type of Non-Hodgkin’s Follicular, small cleaved
Vasculitis (of medium & large arteries)Temporal Arteritis
Viral Encephalitis HSV
Worm infection in US 1. Pinworm Enterobius vermicularis
Worm infection in US 2Ascaris Ascaris lumbricoides


Question Answer
insulin cause activation of a phosphorylase that dephosphorylates the hormone sensitive lipase and decreas lipolysis
insulin secreted bybetal cell of largerhans of the pancreas
why insulin is secreated in response to what ?increase glucose blood level or when eating something
insulin cause what in the liverglycogenesis ( is the process of glycogen synthesis
insulin promotesglucose uptake into cell aa uptake into cell , GLYCOGENESIS LYPOGENESIS
insul ininhibitslipolysis protein syntheis
what the funcion of insulindecrease blood glucose
insuling promoteutilization of glucose as a energy source synthesis of glycogen triglycerides and proteins
what promotes insuling relaese hyperglycemia , elevated AA , GH CORTISOL
neurologic receptor that realease insulingparasympathetic
insulin inhibitlipolysis , protein break downw
removal of anterior adenohypophysis of the pitutuary gland cause a increase sensitivity toinsulin
seisures can occur as a result oflow glucose leverl hipoglicemia
clinical manifestation of hypoglicemiahunger , nervousness and shakiness perspiration dizzines confusion dif to speak , weak anxious.
3 thing tha decrease insulin secretiondecrease blood glucose level, somastostatin, epinephrine o nor
glucagon pormotesglycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis (is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon) , protein synthesis
name a factor that those not decreasea insulin secretionglucagon
glucagon is secreted byalpha cells in the islet of langerhans of the pancreas
why glucagon is secreated in response to what?a fall in glucose blood level
glucango cause what in the liverglycogenolysis (conversion of glycogen to glucose ) is the break down of glycogen
what the funcion of glucagonincrease plasma glucose
another name for glucagonhyperglycemic factor
glucagon is promote or realese by 5 factorfall in blood glucose hypoglicemia , sympathetic stimulation , epi , nor , decreas AA ,CHELOSCYSTOKININ
name the nerologic recetor that estimulate or release glucagonsympathetic
factor that decrease glucagonrise blood glucose , insulin , somtostatin , free faty acidas and KETOACIDS.


Question Answer
were are EPI and NOR formadrenal medula
preganglionic fiber of the AM synaps withChromaffin cell
Funcion of chromaffin celsecrete epi 80% nor 20% into circulation
epi and nor are Biosynthezied fromaa TYROSINE
effects of epiglycogenolysis , gluconeogenesis whic raise blood glucose level , lipolysis , increase HR , Constricts blood vesses , Dilatated bronquiol , activates muscle glycogen phosphorylse
effects of norincrease HR , pormotes lipolysis contrict blood vessels thus increasing TPR
epinephrine promotesglycogenolysis , gluconeogenesis protein synthesis

adrenal cortex zones

Question Answer
zona glomerulosaaldosteron adh in kidney
zona fasciulatacortisol promotes gluconeogenesis
zona reticularisandrogen and estroges
zona medulllaEPI , NOR
cortisol is primary produced were?
Question Answer
syndrome cause by excessive production of cortisol cushing sx
most commn cause of cushing sx ispituitary tumor that caur incresased secretion of ACTH
cortisol promotesglyconeongenesis , lipolysis , breakdown protein
GH promotesaa uptake into cell , protie synthesis , glycogenolysis , lipolysis


Question Answer
anterior pitutuaryTSH , FSH, LH, GH, Prolacin ,ACTH , MSH
Posterio pitutuaryoxytocin , ADH vasopresin
THAnterior basiphilis par distal
GHacidofic part distal
Oxytocin , ADHpar nervosa neurohyposhisi
Supra opticoxytocin
Para ventricularADH
Direct inhibitory effen on hypothalamus and anterior pitutary glandcortisol

thyroid hormons and parathyroid glands

Question Answer
t2 , t4follicular cell
lower Ca blood levercalcitoin
Parathayroid hormone PTHIncrease calcium blood level decrease phoshates


Question Answer
Urea the most importan disposal route foramonia
travel true blood in liver to kindneyurea
what enzyme catalyzes urea formantionARGINASE
sources of ammoniaAA , Glutamine , amines , Purine y pyrimidines


Question Answer
p waveatrial depolarizacion
t waveventrical repolarizacion
QRSventrical depolarizacion
stventrical depolarizacion isoelectic
PRtieme in between depolarization of atrial and depolarizacion of ventricule
QTTime in betwen ventricular depolarizacion and ventricualar repolarizacion
distole phaseatrioventricular valves open , sinoatrial node stars cardiac conduction , contracts , cause atrial contraction ,atrial empty blood into the ventricules , semilunar valves close preventing backflow in to ventricle
systole phaseventricules contract atrioventricular valves close , semilunar valve open and blood goes to either pulmonary or aorta
Sinoatrial SA NODEpeacer marker of the heart
taqchycardia higher than normal hear ratemalfuncioning SA NODE
delayed imposulse as they pass from the atria to the ventriculesAV node atrio ventricular node
ventricules contract nearly simultaneously with atriamalfuniconing AV NODE
Purkinje fibers originate from right and left bundle entendi to lateral walls of ventricles 0.3 sec
right ventricules does not contract on lateral sidemalfuncion purkine fibers
entire left ventricle does not contractAV bundles