Radiology - CXR

klistu's version from 2016-03-27 21:36


Question Answer
Posterior – Anterior Projectionstand with back towards x-ray, arms abducted, hand externally rotated, and hands on hips.
Lateral Projection Stand straight, weight on both feet, raise arms high, keep chin up, correct marker on film, with the side with pathology closest to film
Left Lateral Projectionused If history of heart condition
Lateral decubitusused to show air fluid levels.
Anterior- Posterior Projection (portable films)vertebrae are highlighted and heart looks larger
Projection path of x-ray beam
Erect Positionwill minimize enlargement and distortion of heart/vessels, allows diaphragm to move down farther, and show air-fluid levels in chest.


Question Answer
Mediastinum structures include trachea, esophagus, thymus, hilar adenopathy, lungs, liver, heart, ascending aorta, or aortic knob.
Pleuraprotective space around lungs, normally not visible
Diaphragmdivided into right hemi and left hemi, the right is higher because of the liver
Lungs hilum, apex (superior), base (inferior), and costophrenic angle.
Right lung has 3 lobes
Left lunghas 2 lobes
Pore of Kohn allows fluid to spread to adjacent acini
Acinigroups of alveoli
Malignant lesionstypically have an irregular cloudy border
Benign lesionstypically more dense and rounded


Question Answer
Conditions causing cardiomegalyCHF, mitral valve stenosis, chronic HTN, pericardial effusion, Left ventricle hypertrophy.
Bronchial patternsnot evident when healthy, but in pathology, when thickened, it may visualized as parallel lines or “eye glass” appearance. Seen in cystic fibrosis, chronic asthma, chronic bronchitis, CHF, or lymph obstruction by tumor.
Air Bronchogramsseen when alveoli are fluid filled and the bronchi are not.
Kerley Lines Seen in interstitial edema, fibrosis, pneumonia, lymph obstruction, RA.
Kerley A lines seen in upper lobes. Radiate from upper portion of hilum or from periphery of upper lung plural margins. 1.5-2.5 cm long.
Kerley B lines found in periphery of lower lung fields. 1 cm long
Kerley C lines cross-hatch appearance in the lower central portion of lung.
Alveolar processesgenerally seen in processes which results in a fluid response.
Fluffy marginsan irregular appearance of margins seen on xray due to fluid spreading to through the acini
Silhouette sign fluid filled lung adjacent to heart causes a loss of normal heart margins or other water density structures.
Central fluffy pattern seen in CHF, and seen radiographically as a bilateral finding producing a “batwing” or “butterfly” appearance.
Interstitial Processeslead to increased radiodensity of structures in the lung interstitium, such as thickened bronchial walls, engorged lymphatics, thick fibrosis.
Metastatic Cancersee multiple areas of involvement due to multiple emboli
Nipple Shadowsometimes mistaken for lesions when they appear on Xray

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