Radiographic Procedure I (page 1)

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Ch. 1 Skeletal Anatomy/Joints and Articulations :

Question Answer
The study of joints or articulations is called what?Arthrology
What are three classifications of joint FUNCTIONSynarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis, Diarthrosis
An IMMOVABLE joint is known as being what?Synarthrodial
A joint with limited movement is known as being what?Amphiarthrodial
A joint that is FREELY movable is known as what?Diarthrodial
What are the three STRUCTURAL classifications of joints?Fibrous, Cartilaginous, and Synovial
What are the three SUB-CATEGORIES of Fibrous joints?Syndesmosis, Suture, and Gomphosis
What are the two SUB-CATEGORIES of Cartilaginous joints?Symphysis and Synchondrosis
Describe a Fibrous jointLack a joint cavity, held together by fibrous connective tissue
What type of FUNCTIONAL classification do Syndesmosis articulations have; name an exampleAmphiarthrodial; Tibiofibular joint (interosseous ligament)
What type of FUNCTIONAL classification do Suture articulations have;give and exampleSynarthrosis;Skull Sutures
What type of FUNCTIONAL classification do Gomphosis articulations have?;exampleAmphiarthrodial; Roots of teeth
What are the Characteristics of Cartilaginous Joints?Lack a joint Cavity, Articulating bones held together tightly by cartilage,little to no movement allowed
What type of FUNCTIONAL classifications do Symphysis Articulations have;exampleAmphiarthrodial; Symphysis Pubis, and Intervertebtal Joint (fibrocartilage)
What type of FUNCTIONAL classifications do Synchondroses Articulations have; exampleSynarthrodial; Epiphyseal plates in long bones
Describe a Synovial JointFreely movable, Contains Fibrous Capsule that has Synovial Fluid

Synovial Joint Movement Types :

Question Answer
What are the first 4 types of Synovial Joint Movements?1.Plane (Gliding) 2.Ginglymus (hinge) 3.Trochoid (pivot) 4.Ellipsoid (Condylar)
What are the last 3 types of Synovial Joint Movements?5.Sellar (Saddle) 6.Spheroidal (ball and socket) 7. Bicondylar Joints
This type of Synovial Joint permits the LEAST movement;examplesPlane (Gliding) Joint; Intermetacarpals, Carpometacarpals, Intercarpals
This type of Synovial Joint permits Flexion and Extension movement only; examplesGinglymus (Hinge) joints; Interphalangeal Joints (fingers) and Elbow
This type of Synovial Joint is formed by a bony, pivot-like process or allows rotational movement;ExampleTrochoid (Pivot); Radioulnar Joints and C1 and C2 pivot (head)
This type of Synovial Joint movement occurs primarily in one plane and is combine with slight rotation; ExamplesEllipsoid (Condylar) Joints; Metacarpophalangeal (knuckle), Wrist joint, and Metatarsophalangeal joint of the toes
What types of movement do Ellipsoid (Condylar) Joints allow?Flexion and Extension, Abductions and Adductions
This type of Synovial Joint has concave and convex shaped bones positioned opposite of each other;ExamplesSellar (saddle) joints; Thumb
What types of movement do Sellar (Saddle) joints allow?Abdduction-Adductions, Flexion-Extension and Circumduction
This type of Synovial Joint allows the GREATEST freedom of motion;ExamplesSpheroidal (Ball and Socket); Hip Joint and Shoulder Joint
What type of movement do Spheroidal (Ball and Socket) Joints allow?Flexion-Extension, Abduction-Adduction, Circumduction, and Medial-Lateral Rotation
This type of Synovial Joint usually provides movement in a single direction, but can provide limited rotation;ExamplesBicondylar Joints; Knee and temporomandibular
Joint (TMJ)

Alternate Synovial Joint names/ Bone types

Question Answer
Ball and SocketSpheroidal
What is the type of synovial joint with one nameBicondylar
Name examples of Short bonesCarpal and Tarsal bones
Name examples of Long bonesFemur, Humerus
Name examples of Flat bonesSternum, ribs, and scapulae
Name examples of irregular bonesVertebrae, Facial Bones, Bones of the Pelvis

Positioning Terminology

Question Answer
What is a Radiograph?An image of a patient's anatomic part(s) as produced by the action of x-rays on an image receptor
What is Radiography?The process and procedures of producing a Radiograph
What is an Image receptor?The device that captures the Radiographic Image that exits the patient
What is the Central Ray?Refers to the center-most portion of the x-ray beam emitted from the x-ray tube; The portion of the x-ray beam that has the least divergence
What is the definition of Latent?Non processed; no image

Chapter 2/Chest

Question Answer
Radiographic anatomy of the chest is divided into what 3 sections?Bony Thorax, Respiratory system proper, Mediastinum
Anteriorly, the bony thorax consists of what?Sternum
What is the superior portion of the Sternum?Manubrium
What is the large center portion of the sternum?The body
what is the inferior portion of the Sternum called?Xiphoid Process
Superiorly the bony thorax consists of what?2 Clavicles, 2 Scapulae, and 12 pairs of ribs
What Landmark is used Posterioanterior projection?Vertebra Prominens (C7)
Where is the C7 landmark located?The base of the neck
What Landmark is used for an Anteroposterior chest projection?Jugular notch
What is another Jugular Notch?Manubrial or Suprasternal notch
Where is the Jugular Notch Palpated?A deep notch or depression on the superior portion of the sternum
What vertebral level is the Midthorax located at?T7

Respiratory System/Diaphragm

Question Answer
What are the 4 General Divisions of the respiratory system?Pharynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and Lungs
What is the Primary muscle of Inspiration?Diaphragm
Where must air pass before it gets to the Larynx?The Pharynx
What is the Pharynx also referred to as?Upper Airway or Upper Respiratory tract
Food/Fluids/Air pass through the Pharynx; is it considered part of the proper Respiratory System?Fuck no
What are the 3 Division of the Pharynx?Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, and Laryngopharynx
What marks the boundary between the Nasopharynx and the Oropharynx?The Uvula
What Flips down to cover the Laryngeal opening Food and Fluid?The Epiglottis
Part of the Digestive system that connects the Pharynx with the with the stomach is the what?Esophagus
What makes the Adam's Apple?The Thyroid Cartilage of the Larynx
What happens to the Diaphragm during Inspiration?Moves DOWN to its lowest point
What happens to the Diaphragm during Expiration?Moves UP to highest point

Respiratory System Proper/Larynx/Trachea

Question Answer
What are the four parts of the Respiratory System Proper?Larynx, Trachea, Right and Left Bronchi, Lungs
What is the Larynx also known as?Voice-Box
Is the Larynx Anterior or Posterior in the neck?Anterior
The Larynx is at what Vertebral Level?Between C3 and C6
At what level does the Larynx Join the Trachea?Level C6
At what Vertebral level is the Laryngeal prominence?C5
What is the 2nd division of the Respiratory System Proper?The Trachea
What is the Diameter of the Trachea?3/4 in or 2cm
What is the Length of the Trachea?4 and 1/2 inches or 11 cm
How many c-shape cartilage rings does the Trachea have?20
At what Vertebral level does the Larynx turn into the Trachea?C6
At what Vertebral level does the Larynx bifurcate into Left and Right Primary Bronchus?T4 or T5
What three glands are located just below the Larynx?Thyroid, Parathyroid, and Thymus Gland

Left and Right Bronchus

Question Answer
Names some characteristics of the Right Primary Bronchus compared to the leftWider, shorter, more Vertical, foreign objects more likely to lodge there
How long is the Right Bronchus?2.5 cm
What Diameter is the Right Brochus?1.3 cm
What is the Angle of Divergence of the Right Bronchus?25 degrees it is more vertical
What is the Diameter and Length of the Left Bronchus?1.1 cm Diameter and 5 cm length
What is the Angle of Divergence of the Left Bronchus?37 degrees it is more Horizontal
What is the Ridge or Prominence that is the bifurcation point of the Left and Right Bronchus?The Carina
The Carina is ____ of MidlineLeft
The Carina is at what Vertebral Level?T5
The Right Bronchi divides into how many secondary Bronchi?3
The Left Bronchi divides into how many Secondary Bronchi?2
The Secondary Bronchi subdivide further into branches called what?Bronchioles
Terminal Bronchioles subdivide into small air sacs called what?Alveoli
The lungs contain ____ million to ____ million alveoli?500 to 700 million


Question Answer
How many Lobes does the right lung have?3
How many Lobes does the Left lung have?2
What Fissure divides the Superior and Middle lobe?Horizontal Fissure
What Fissure divides the Inferior and Middle lobe?Oblique Fissure
The 2 Lobes of the left lung are divided by?A single deep Oblique Fissure
The lungs are compose of a light, spongy, highly elastic substance called?Parenchyma
What is the double walled membrane called that contains the Lungs?Pleura
Outer Layer that surrounds the Diaphragm and lines the inner surface of the Chest wallParietal Plura
Inner layer that covers the surface of the lungs and dips into the fissures between the lobes is called theVisceral or Pulmonary Pleura
The potential space between the double-walled Pleura is called the what?Pleural Cavity
When air is present in the Pleural cavity it is called what?Pneumothorax
When fluid is present in the Pleural cavity it is known as what?Hemothorax
What parts of the Lung must be Present in a PA chest Radiograph?Apices, Base, and Costophrenic Angle
The right lung is usually about ____ shorter than the left lung1 inch shorter


Question Answer
Where is the Mediatunum located?The medial portion of the thoracic cavity between the Lungs
What are the 4 radiographically important structures located in the Mediastium?Thymus Gland, Heart and Great Vessels, Trachea, and Esophagus
What Vertebral Level is the heart at?T5 to T8


Question Answer
When should the chest image be taken; as it pertains to breathing?After a double-breath; hold in after second inspiration
The Thoracic cavity increases in Diameter in _________ dimensions3
What are the Dimensions that the Bony thorax increases in?Vertical Diameter, Transverse Diameter, and Anteroposterior Diameter
During inspirations, we watch the _____ rise and fallShoulders
Want to see ___ to ___ ribs above the diaphragm10 to 12
For PA chest only, Inspiration and Expiration films are taken for comparison; describeTaken for comparison, must be marked Insp. or Exp., Used for suspicious legion from lung to rib
How many inches away should the Tube be for Ambulatory chest?72 inches
For Ambulatory chest, what film size do we use and how is it positioned on a PA projection?14x17 Length-wise or Crosswise
How far away does the Tube have to be for a Portable Chest x-rayAt least 40 inches
What are the benefits of Erect and Semi-erect positioningDiaphragm moves to lowest point,Demonstration of Air-Fluid Levels,Minimal Engorgement of great vessels, Better demonstrates Lung Capacity


Question Answer
What are the Indications for a Chest X-ray?Bronchitis, Dsypnea,Emphysema,COPD,Pneumonia,Pneumothorax,Pleural Effusion,Neoplams, Congestive Heart Failure
What does Bronchitis entail?Accumulation of mucus in the Bronchi;SOB and Cough
What does Dyspnea entail?SOB condition
What does Emphysema entail?Irreversible and Chronic,Alveoli enlarged due to destruction,Barrel Chest
What do we do to the kVp Tech factor for patients with Emphysema?Decrease because it is a Destructive Pathology
What is Emphysema caused by?Smoking and Dust Inhalation
What does Pneumonia entail?Inflammation of Lungs that cause fluids to accumulate
What does Pneumothorax entail?Partial or complete lung collapse due to air in Pleural Cavity
What does Pleural Effusion entail?Fluid accumulation in the Pleural Cavity
Empyema is what?Pus in the Pleural Cavity
Hemothorax is what?Blood in the Pleural Cavity
What does COPD stand for?Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
What does COPD entail?Persistent Obstruction of Airway; Causes difficulty in EMPTYING lungs of air
What is the name for a New Growth or Tumor?Neopalms
What does Congestive Heart Failure entail?Failure of the heart to adequately pump blood, Fluid builds in the Heart,Can lead to enlarged heart, Pulmonary Edema,Systemic Edema

Film Criteria

Question Answer
For an Ambulatory Chest PA, where is the Central Ray positioned?T7 or T8
What Land Marks do we use for an Ambulatory PA Chest?C7 (Vertebral Prominens) to Inferior Angle of Scapula
In what projection is the Heart Closest to the film?PA Chest
In what Projection is the Heart LESS magnified?PA Chest
Name the Criteria for a good Ambulatory PA chest X-rayShoulders Relaxed,Ribs 1 and 2 above Clavicle,Minimum of 10 ribs above Diaphragm,Chin Extended,NO ROTATIONS, SC Joint Symmetry
What is the Criteria for a good Lateral Chest X-ray?Left Side closest to film, Arms and Chin Elevated, Shoulders and Hips Aligned, No rotation
What is the SID on Lateral Chest?72''
Where is the CR on a Lateral Chest?T7 or T8 Midcoronal
What Landmark can be used in Lateral Chest?Inferior angle of Scapula
On a Lateral Chest, Posterior Rib Margins should not exceed ___ cm or ___inch1 cm or Half Inch

Portable Chest

Question Answer
For a Portable SUPINE chest, what is the minimum distance?40" inches
Portable chest will usually always be a ___ projectionAP projection
What is the usual kVp for Portable chest?90-100 kVp
We use Grid when the Part is greater than ___cm and a kVp higher than ___10;70
Where the Grid Usually placed?An inch above the top of the Patient's shoulder
How many ribs should be present in a portable chest?8-9 ribs
Will the Heart be magnified?Yes because it is closer
The CR is placed ___ to ___ inches below the ______ on a SEMI ERECT positioning3 to 4;Jugular Notch
The CR is placed at ____ for SUPINE portableT7
What film markings must be noted on the PACS for portable Chest?Time, Date, Tech, Position of Patient, SID

Decubitus Chest

Question Answer
How many kV and mAs are used for Decubitus Chest?120 kV @ 3 mAs
When dealing with FLUID, the side of interest is supposed to be _____Down
When dealing with AIR, the side of interest is supposed to ____Up
What Projections are used for RLD or LLD?Could be PA or AP
How is the Patient Positioned during a Decubitus exam?Arms Elevated towards head, Chest cavity built up above bed, Flex Knees for Stability
Where is the CR located during a RLD or LLD?T7 MSP